Redaction • Ecosystem is a community of plants, animals and smaller organisms that live, feed, reproduce and interact in the same area or environment. • Biosphere is the part of the earth’s crust, waters, and atmosphere that supports life, it comprise the entire earth and the living organisms that inhabit it. • Biome is a large community of plants and animals that occupies a distinct region extending over a large area and usually characterized by a dominant vegetation. • Abiotic components of an ecosystem consist of the nonorganic aspects of the environment that determine what life can thrive. Examples: temperature, average humidity, topography and natural disturbances. • Biotic components of an ecosystem are the life forms that inhabit it. The life forms of an ecosystem aid in the transfer and cycle of energy. They are grouped in terms of the means they use to get energy, producers (such as plants) produce their own energy without consuming other life forms, consumers exist on the next level of the food chain. There are 3 main types of consumers: herbivores, carnivores and omnivores. • Abiotic resources are based on non-living organisms. They are obtained from lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere. Examples: water, air, minerals. They cannot reproduce themselves. • Biotic resources are based on living organisms. These are biosphere. Examples: animals, birds, forests. They can reproduce themselves. • Organisms: -Reproduce in an specific area -Live in an specific area This is called habitat and it influences in some elements of the biotope. The habitat for the organisms must have: -Food -Good environmental conditions -Other living beings to interact whit the same biocenosis. • Any substance that is required by a living organism which comes from nature Resources for plants: ● Nutrients ● Soil ● Water ● Seed dispersal ● Sunshine ● Place to grow Resources for animals: ● Foraging ● Territory ● Water The minimum is the minimum characteristics an organism needs to live. The environmental conditions must have everything in its favour, if something is not favour, they will not survive. This is called limitating factor. Optimum is when the environmental conditions are so good that the development of the organism it's at its maximum level. Some organisms can also support conditions that are not optimum, but not at their maximum level The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors Example: The flightless dung beetle occupies a niche exploiting animal droppings as a food source -A terrestrial ecosystem is an ecosystem found only on landform. -An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem found only on water. - In both terrestrial and aquatic environments the ecosystems include communities made up of a variety of species. -Within both terrestrial and aquatic communities there are populations at the different trophic levels. -A great deal of mutual interdependence exists between species in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Aquatic An ecosystem is composed of biotic communities that are structured by biological interactions and abiotic environmental factors. -Abiotic: Substrate type, water depth, nutrient levels, temperature, salinity, and flow. -Biotic: The biotic characteristics are mainly determined by the organisms that occur. Terrestrial -Abiotic: Stones, soil, climate -Biotic: Producers green plants, herbivores, predators Several animal groups have undergone aquatic adaptation, going from being purely terrestrial animals to living at least part of the time in water in order to find available food. Animals of later generations may spend the majority of their life in the water and finally the full adapted animals may take to mating and birthing in water. An example of the beginnings of aquatic adaptation is the polar bear. There are 3 types: • Freshwater • Terrestrial • Ocean In terrestrial ecosystem, there are various types depending mainly on temperature: • Deciduos forests • Tundra • Grasslands • Coniferous forest • Tropical rainforest • Savanna • Dessert • Mediterranean • Polar • 3 large ecosystems can be defined: • -Mixed damp woods: similar to taiga • -Mediterranean forests: holm and pedunculated oaks • -Steppes: with human influence • Due to the location of Canary Islands, the ecosystem over there is semivolcanic. • In mountains, some ecosystems are formed like clines, from the valleys to • the summit.