Literature Review This project was stemmed from a source YouTube: Earthrise: Energy Farmer (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4rL5WkO34q0). After analysing the idea presented in the video, it was realised that we could use our organic waste in the city to benefit us just this way too. However, we did not just want to use the methane we will produce for cooking and thought, if it is a fuel, why not use it to generate electricity in a combustion engine? The generation of electricity on our farms are quite expensive so, we will better benefit this way. It was then planned to eradicate our organic waste by using three technologies (Bio digester, gas pressure vessel and combustion engine). With careful research, surfing the internet and personal interviews with farmers, vendors and other citizens, our project began. With careful engineering of putting together the three complex technologies, use of science of the various bacteria that can decompose our organic waste in the bio digester to produce methane and fertiliser and calculations of how much methane and fertiliser can be produced from a unit amount of organic waste, along with the amount needed to power a 60-watt bulb for 3-4 hours and the time taken for the process to occur, our project was completed upon the latter findings. Problem Scenario For long, Guyanese negligence has turned our garden city into a garbage city. Rubbish has become a common element in our urban picture. The government, commonly blamed, are not solely responsible for the situation.....the people are. But what if we can give great significance to most of the waste in the city, made up mostly of organic content? On a daily basis, our markets are producing a lot of organic wastes; which forms ideal breeding grounds for rodents and pests, contributing to the spread of dangerous diseases. It is due to the constant littering and outsized quantity of garbage in our waterways, Guyana suffers from constant flooding. The city will be a clean, litter-free and better place, if we change the way we perceive our rubbish. It is possible to utilise this resource in such a way that would renew our city and keep it clean, whiles benefitting our farmers, consumers, businessmen/women; or the entire nation as a whole, simultaneously. VISION: A clean and sustainable capital city free of garbage by the removal and utilisation of the organic waste; benefitting our farmers, consumers and businessmen/women, simultaneously; and protecting our planet by using methane, a gas that is twenty-one(21) times more harmful than carbon-dioxide, thus, reducing our dependency on our fossil fuels. A nation with peace and unity by the elimination of poverty and separation among our people, who will, in turn, cooperate with each other to achieve a common goal. HYPOTHESIS: The organic waste will produce methane in a bio digester, an anaerobic environment, and fertiliser rich in potassium, as the bio digestate. The methane will stay controlled in a gas pressure vessel, which will control the input of methane into the tank and output of methane into a combustion engine. The combustion engine will be fuelled by the methane to produce enough electricity with 6.25mols (100 grams) of combusted methane to power three 60-watt bulbs for more than 8hours. The entire system will be effective. AIM: 1. To obtain a clean and sustainable capital city, free of garbage by the removal and utilisation of the organic waste. 2. To use organic waste in a bio digester to produce methane and fertiliser 3. To use methane in a combustion engine to generate electricity 4. To prove that this is a sustainable and effective system. Usage and Integration of S.T.E.M. (SCIENCE) The use of an anaerobic digestion in the bio digester of the various bacteria and enzymes which work at optimum pH(neutral) and temperature to break down the organic waste and produce methane and fertiliser rich in potassium. The process does not only rely on one strain of bacteria but depends on a balanced ecology of many different microbes such as hydrolytic, acidogenic, acetogenic and methanogenic. The methane will produce carbon dioxide and water when fully combusted with oxygen, greatly reducing the total greenhouse emissions. After the methane has been extracted, fertiliser becomes the bio digestate which is far less in the nitrogen and phosphorus levels; reducing eutrophication caused by the run-off of inorganic fertilisers rich in the latter nutrients in our water-ways, depleting our aquatic ecosystem by algal bloom and oxygen depletion. (TECHNOLOGY) Bio digester- is an anaerobic tank (oxygen-free), which digests organic materials via biological activities by micro-organisms. It is used to decompose organ materials. When organic matter decomposes without the presence of oxygen, methane, a potent greenhouse gas is produced. Gas Pressure Vessels- These giant tanks are used to store the methane, preventing any leakage into the atmosphere. They are also used in the output of methane into the combustion engine. Combustion Engine- In the combustion engine, oxygen is added to the methane. An internal combustion engine injects a mixture of fuel and air into a combustion chamber, where a piston compresses the mix. A spark plug ignites the fuel, driving the piston down, turning a crankshaft. The crankshaft, in turn, spins the generator's rotor in an electromagnetic field, generating an electric current that can charge batteries, power appliances or even run high-wattage tools, depending on the generator's size. Because it burns a gaseous fuel rather than a liquid fuel, it requires a caburetor- a device that blends a precisely metered amount of fuel and air and injects the mix into the engine's cylinders (specially designed to manage pressurised gas). (Engineering) The combination of the three types of technology (biodigester, gas pressure vessel and combustion engine) with the usage of complex, yet stable arrangement of pipes to connect the tanks of the biodigester and other strategic implementations such as a gas hose to channel the methane out of the biodigester and into the combustion engine. The biodigester produced the methane and fertiliser while the gas pressure vessel stored the methane and the combustion engine uses it to generate electricity. (MATHEMATICS) With the use of simple calculations, the farmers' profit can be estimated along with the foreign exchange gained by the country, while with the use of standard deviation, the amount of organic waste versus the amount of methane produced can be produced graphically using a frequency curve. The amount of organic waste versus inorganic waste found in the city can be compared and be estimated. The average amount of money consumers will be saving and the amount of fertiliser produced and packaged can also be calculated. Standard deviation was used to show how much of the organic waste in each bag deviated away from the mean amount of organic waste collected in the 10 bags. Tables and a bar graph were used to show the data collected from our research. Bag Number Bag One Bag Two Bag Three Bag Four Bag Five Bag Six Bag Seven Bag Eight Bag Nine Bag Ten Mean Standard Deviation Table showing the amount of organic waste in ten bags of garbage Original Mass of Bag(lbs) Mass of Organic waste(lbs) Percent of organic waste in each bag 4 1.75 48.00% 11.5 9.5 83% 29.5 19.5 66% 3.5 2.5 71% 5.5 5.5 100% 4 2.5 63% 0.75 0.25 33% 3.5 0.5 14% 5.5 1.5 27% 3.25 2 62% 4.55 5.924056418 Bar graph showing the original mass of bags against the mass of organic waste in the bags 30 25 20 15 Original Mass of Bag(lbs) Mass of Organic waste(lbs) 10 5 0 Bag One Bag Bag Bag Two Three Four Bag Five Bag Bag Bag Bag Six Seven Eight Nine Bag Ten Enterprise The products of this project are electricity, fertiliser and a clean environment. To enterprise these products, we first need to invest in them. If more organic waste is collected than what the farm needs, excess fertiliser will be produced, which can be packaged and sold. This, providing employment for the citizens and also bringing in an income for the farmers. For electricity to be enterprised, the farmers will have to make a truce with the public to collect their organic waste in return for a lower price on their produce. However, the latter depends on the cost of the collection process or the organic waste. If the truce is successful, the farmer the farmer will be able to sell his produce at a lower price, and so, our consumers would benefit by obtaining better quality produce at a lower price. Since the price of food will be lowered, this will encourage consumers to use more, thus, providing more organic waste from which our farmers will benefit. The buyers who benefit from the reduction of cost of the farmers' produce can also make a profit by modifying the produce; either by packaging or canning or preparing them for immediate use, which would still be sold at a lower price than that of the imported, modified produce on supermarket shelves, across the country. Our clean environment will promote tourism, which in turn, allows the country to gain foreign exchange and attract more people to invest in businesses in the city. More people will also be encouraged to come to and buy what they need in the city, allowing the various businesses to be conducted and prosper. Micro Project The apparatus set up will be used to show that methane and fertiliser will be produced from the organic waste in our city. Cow manure was placed first into the apparatus to create the most suitable environment for the micro-organisms to act quickly and efficiently, decomposing the organic waste. If we can produce enough methane, we can generate electricity and the fertiliser will be given to our farmers to test its yielding abilities. This will demonstrate that by using our waste will not only benefit us, but also contribute to a clean heart or city of our country. The total cost to set up this apparatus was estimated to be approximately $21,000. Outline of Micro Project Materials: Organic waste, animal manure (cow manure preferable), Silicone Apparatus: 5-gallon bottles, PVC pipes (pressure and non-pressure), PVC valves and knees, Gas Hose, Brass Fittings, wooden-stand and ply-wood Procedure: First a stand was set up to support the bio digester. Two 5 gallon bottles were placed an equal distance from each other. A hole was cut from the high side of each bottle and a non-pressure P.V.C. pipe were placed in to be the entry point of the organic material. Small holes were then placed on top of the covers of each bottle so that brass fittings in combination with a small gas hose and valves can lead the methane out of each digester and into a bicycle tube and also to the combustion engine. The methane would be collected by the tube. Once enough was collected the methane will then be sent to the combustion engine to be combusted to produce electricity. The cow manure was placed for 24 hours then the organic waste was added for another 24 hours and observed. CONCLUSION A clean and sustainable capital city can be obtained by using our organic waste in a biodigester, which produces methane and fertiliser. The methane is compressed in a gas pressure vessel, which combusts in a combustion engine producing electricity. Working towards this, will allow our people to unite and benefit equally.