How can higher education sector be improved in Pakistan? Dr

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How can higher education sector be improved in Pakistan?
Dr. Muhammad Sarwar, TI
OSU Distinguished Alumnus
Distinguished National Professor
Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
There are many reasons for falling education standard of our public sector universities. Two
of them are lack of visionary leadership and incompetent faculty.
Proactive, distinguished and visionary scholars if appointed as vice chancellors of universities
and deans of faculties, education standards of our universities could become globally
competitive. An educated, honest and competent administration is considered heart and soul
of any educational institution and in the absence such leadership, education sector can hardly
develop and progress. In educational institutions of higher learning, vice chancellors and
deans are the real leaders who bring change if appointed on merit. Unfortunately, some of
these appointments are hardly made on merit. For example, most of the vice chancellors in
our universities are appointed through political influence because university acts were
modified to reappoint/accommodate such persons. Such appointments not only deteriorate
education and research standards but also create frustration among teacher and taught. It is
derogatory to the status of a vice chancellor and dean to exercise nepotism and favoritism by
appointing his/her kith and kens. Could such vice chancellor and deans be considered real
visionary leaders? Can faculty derive inspiration from such persons? The eligibility criteria
for the post of a vice chancellor should such that only distinguished and outperforming
candidates could apply and compete for this very prestigious post. The search committee
constituted by the chief minister is responsible to interview candidates for the post of vice
chancellor and then this committee recommends three suitable candidates to the chief
minister to appoint one of them as vice chancellor. This committee must not have any
political person as its member rather it must have members who are top ranked in their
respective fields. However, our search committees have not attained this level so far and
hopefully; these may improve with the passage of time. While appointing a vice chancellor,
the search committee must review his/her previous appointments/promotions and if these
were maneuvered either through political, bribery, ethnic, caste and creed influence, he/she
must not be considered for the appointment of vice chancellor. It is not too late to mend if the
government reviews its decision to save these educational institutes from further damage.
An active and well qualified faculty is considered essential to produce quality graduate in any
educational institution. In the absence of such a competent, proactive faculty, education
sector can hardly produce future leaders. In Pakistan, quality of education is being
compromised simply because of substandard faculty. In some universities, university teachers
posts are not advertised keeping in view faculty need but to select/promote people based upon
liking and disliking.
There are many reasons for poor standard of faculty in our educational institutions but one of
the most important is faulty selection procedure. In the current selection procedure, various
posts are advertised in national press and applications are received and evaluated on the basis
of applicant’s curriculum vitae. The applicants are then interviewed through selection board
headed by the vice chancellor. The decision of the selection board is approved by the
syndicate which is again headed by vice chancellor. In most of the universities, recruitment is
100% by selection and no promotion at all. But in fact, about 100% already working teachers
are promoted to next cadre in the excuse of 100% selection. This type of selection is not merit
based and also gives birth to inbreeding. This inbreeding is lethal for any novel idea and that
is why most of our educational institutions lack innovation which consequently causes
stagnancy.
The current selection procedure is hardly successful to recruit the competent faculty members
in the institutions of higher learning. There is little focus on reforming the system which
revolves around one person who is called a vice chancellor. This selection procedure can
become very effective if task of selecting university teachers is entrusted to provincial Public
Service Commissions. If it is not possible immediately, then vice chancellor should head
either university selection board or university syndicate; this may partially improve the
selection procedure of university teachers.
Programs have been chalked out for the development of existing faculty and efforts have
been made to fulfill the current faculty deficiency through hiring foreign faculty through
short term and long term appointments. But this foreign faculty hiring program could not
become successful because of many reasons; one of which was lack of academic freedom to
them. Because some of our vice chancellors and deans act like police SHOs and not like
academicians. Someone has rightly said that there is only one proven method of assisting the
advancement of science; that of selecting men of genius, backing them heavily and leaving
them to direct themselves. A new model for the recruitment of the faculty and their initial
training and orientation after recruitment is proposed. Thus, the thrust is on selection of men
or women of genius.
Model selection procedures for hunting the most capable faculty can be adopted from any of
the prestigious universities of the world. Here is the format of selection procedure of new
faculty in universities and other institutes of higher learning. The graduate and postgraduate
should not be eligible to apply as faculty member in the same institution for at least three
years after their graduation. However, they can apply for faculty positions in their mother
institution after three years of their graduation.
After receiving the applicant’s curriculum vitae for the job, the minimum eligibility criteria
should be followed for initial screening of candidates. After initial screening, the applicant
should be exposed to all stakeholders, before appearing the selection board. The evaluation of
all stakeholders should be given due weight while making final decision for selection of
candidates for the job.
The candidate teachers should first deliver lecture to students to evaluate their teaching skills
in terms of communication, depth of knowledge and handling of students. The students and
the examiners for the said activity should evaluate the candidate teacher and give their
opinion on an evaluation proforma specially designed for the purpose. The evaluation should
reach the selection committee/board.
The candidate teacher should then deliver a seminar to the existing faculty members to
explain his future program that he/ she wants to pursue after induction as a faculty member.
The evaluation of current faculty members about the candidate teacher should reach the
selection committee/board.
For the post of a professor in the respective field, the candidate should be exposed to the
industry, deliver his vision and be evaluated by the selection committee for his future vision
about the respective industry.
Then the candidate should appear before the selection board for final selection. Following
this procedure in letter and spirit, the most competent faculty is expected to be on the role in
universities.
After recruitment, the candidate should be given orientation in the respective department and
university about the available facilities and expectations of the respective institution. Training
should be given to the newly recruited faculty on teaching and communication skills,
management aspects and role of a teacher in the current scenario of knowledge-economy.
Faculty members recruited through this procedure could be of highest excellence.
Initial seed money of Rs. 3.0 million should be put at the disposal of the new faculty for
starting his research in his respective field so that he can start his research program without
any delay. Then he should be assigned to win his own projects from the funding agencies and
become self-sufficient in terms of supporting research.
The regular evaluation of the faculty members should be from a third party rather than from
the colleagues or immediate controlling officer of the faculty member. This will put further
pressure on the faculty for remaining competitive and justifying their existence in the system.
The role of deans, directors and chairmen should be to facilitate the faculty rather than having
an upper hand. The candidates should come up with their programs and pass through the
same criteria of selection as proposed for the faculty. They should address all the
stakeholders separately and be evaluated on the basis of their performance or situation
handling by the respective stakeholders. The performance of candidates in their previous
position should also be given weightage during their selection for the job position. Seniority
should be the last criteria for selecting a candidate for a specific job position.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Dr. M. Sarwar (T.I, Distinguished National Prof.)
Status:TTS
Phone:
+92 (0)41-9200195 Ext. 3200
Fax: +92 (0)41-9200195
Mobile: +92 (0)3007652053
[email protected]
Department:
Technology
Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Institute of Animal Nutrition and Feed
Position:Professor
HEC Approved Supervisor: YES
Research Intersts: Development of Nitrogen Fixation Technology for ammoniated crop
residues; Digestion Kinetics of local legumes, grasses, crop residues and grain by-products;
Fodder Preservation Technology; Feeding Value of non-conventional feed resources for least
cost dairy and beef ration; development of DCAD technology for optimum dairy animal
productivity, raising sheep and goat on high input feeding system.
Publications:
Journal Articles:
Sarwar, M., M.A. Shahzad, M. Nisa, S. Amjad, 2011, Nutrient intake, acid base status and
weight gain in water buffalo calves fed different dietary concentrations of sodium
bicarbonate, South African Journal of Animal Science, 41(2), 94-103
Sarwar, M., M.A.Shahzad, M.Nisa, D. Afzal, M. Sharif, H.A.Saddiqi, 2011, Feeding value of
urea molasses treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred
cattle calves, Tropical Animal Health and Production., 43, 543-548
Saddiqi, H.A., M.Nisa, N. Mukhtar, M. A. Shahzad, A. Jabbar and M. Sarwar, 2011,
Documentation of Physiological Parameters and Blood Profile in Newly Born Kajli Lambs,
Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 24(7), 912-918
Hassan, Z., M.A.Shahzad, M.Nisa and M.Sarwar., 2011, Nutrient utilization and milk yield
response of early lactating nili ravi buffaloes fed on urea-molasses treated wheat straw
fermented with cattle manure, . Livestock Science , 0,
Shahzad, M.A. M.Nisa, M.Sarwar, 2011, Influence of replacing corn grains by enzose (corn
dextrose) on nutrient utilization, thyroid hormones, plasma metabolites and weight gain in
growing lambs. , Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Scienc, 0,
Khan, S.H., M.A. Shahzad, M.Nisa, M.Sarwar, 2011, Nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen
balance and growth performance of sheep fed different silages with or without concentrate,
Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43(4), 795-801
Hassan,Z., M.Nisa, M.A.Shahzad, M.Sarwar, 2011, Replacing concentrate with wheat straw
treated with urea molasses and ensiled with manure:Effects on ruminal characteristics, in situ
digestion kinetics and nitrogen metabolism on Nili ravi buffalo b, Asian Australasian Journal
of Animal Science, 24(8), 1092-1099
Javaid, A., M.A. Shahzad, M.Nisa and M.Sarwar, 2011, Ruminal dynamics of ad libitum
feeding in buffalo bulls receiving different level of rumen degradable protein., Livestock
Science, 135, 98–102
Tauqir, N.A., M.A.Shahzad, Mahr-un-Nisa, M.Fayyaz, A.Tipu and M.Sarwar., 2011,
Response of growing buffalo calves to various energy and protein concentrations., Livestock
Science, 0,
Shahzad, M.A., N.A.Tauqir, M.Nisa, M.Sarwar, M. Fayyaz, M.A.Tipu. , 2011, Effects of
feeding different dietary protein and energy levels on the performance of 12-15 month old
buffalo calves, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 43, 685-693
Tanveer A., M. Sarwar, Mahr-un-Nisa, Ahsan-Ul-Haq, J. Ansari and Farooq Iqbal, 2011,
Dietary electrolyte balance responses in broilers reared in moderately high environmental
temperature and high humidity, Advances in Animal Biosciences, 1(2), 418-419
Khalid, M.F., M. Sarwar, Mahr-Un-Nisa and Zia-Ur-Rehman,, 2011, Response of growing
lambs fed on different vegetable protein sources with or without probiotics, International J.of
Agric.and biology., 0, 332–33
Sarwar, M., M.A.Shahzad, M.Nisa, D. Afzal, M. Sharif, H.A.Saddiqi., 2011, Feeding value
of urea molasses treated wheat straw ensiled with fresh cattle manure for growing crossbred
cattle calves., Tropical Animal Health and Production., 43, 543-548
Sarwar, M., M.A. Shahzad, M. Nisa, S. Amjad., 2011, Nutrient intake, acid base status and
weight gain in water buffalo calves fed different dietary concentrations of sodium
bicarbonate., South African Journal of Animal Science, 41, 94-103
Sarwar, M., M.A.Shahzad, M.Nisa., 2011, Impact of rumen digesta inoculation on feeding
value of urea – molasses treated wheat straw., J. Anim. Sci. Vol.89, E-Supp. 1/ J. Dairy Sci. ,
94,
Sarwar,M.A., M.A.Shahzad, M.F.Khalid and M.Nisa., 2011, Performance of growing lambs
receiving altered
plant protein sources with or without probiotics., July 03-04, 2011
International Conference on Asia Agriculture and Animal,, 13, 135-144
Sarwar, M., M.A.Shahzad, N.A.Tauqir, M. Nisa, F. Ahmed, M. A. Tipu., 2011, Growth of
nine month old male buffalo calves as affected by different crude protein and energy
concentrations. The First International Meeting on Genes,, Animal Agriculture and
Aquaculture, March 17 -19, Honolulu, Hawaii USA. , ,
Siddiqi, H.A., M.Sarwar, Z.Iqbal, M.Nisa and M.A.Shahzad. , 2011, Markers/parameters for
the evaluation of natural resistance status of small ruminants against gastrointestinal
nematodes., Animal: an International Journal of Animal Biosciences. Accepted for
Publication , ,
Shahzad, M.A., M. Sharif, M.Nisa, M.Sarwar, M.F.Khalid, H.A.Saddiqi., 2011, Changing
certain dietary cationic and anionic minerals: Impact on blood chemistry, milk fever and
udder edema in buffaloes during winter., African Journal of Biotechnology,, 10, 1365113663
Khan, S.H., A. Azim, M. Sarwar, A.G.Khan., 2011, Effect of maturity on comparative
nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of maize, sorghum and millet silages., Pak. J.
Bot.,, 43(6), 2967-2970
Shahzad, M.A., N.A.Tauqir, M.Nisa, M.Sarwar, M. Fayyaz, M.A.Tipu., 2011, Effects of
feeding different dietary protein and energy levels on the performance of 12-15 month old
buffalo calves., Tropical Animal Health and Production. , 43, 685-693
Shahzad, M.A. M.Nisa, M.Sarwar., 2011, Influence of replacing corn grains by enzose (corn
dextrose) on nutrient utilization, thyroid hormones, plasma metabolites and weight gain in
growing lambs., Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Science., 24, 946-951
Hassan, Z., M.A.Shahzad, M.Nisa and M.Sarwar., 2011, Nutrient utilization and milk yield
response of early lactating nili ravi buffaloes fed on urea-molasses treated wheat straw
fermented with cattle manure., Livestock Science. , 139, 271-276
Javaid, A., M.A. Shahzad, M.Nisa and M.Sarwar., 2011, Ruminal dynamics of ad libitum
feeding in buffalo bulls receiving different level of rumen degradable protein., Livestock
Science., 135, 98-102
Tauqir, N.A., M.A.Shahzad, Mahr-un-Nisa, M.Fayyaz, A.Tipu and M.Sarwar., 2011,
Response of growing buffalo calves to various energy and protein concentrations., Livestock
Science., 137, 66-72
Khan, S.H., M.A. Shahzad, M.Nisa, M.Sarwar., 2011, Nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen
balance and growth performance of sheep fed different silages with or without concentrate.,
Tropical Animal Health and Production., 43, 795-801
Hassan,Z., M.Nisa, M.A.Shahzad, M.Sarwar., 2011, Replacing concentrate with wheat straw
treated with urea molasses and ensiled with manure: Effects on ruminal characteristics, in situ
digestion kinetics and nitrogen metabolism on Nili ravi buffalo b, Asian Australasian Journal
of Animal Science , 24, 1092-1099
Siddiqi, H.A., A.Jabbar, M.Sarwar, Z.Iqbal, G.Muhammad, M.Nisa and M.A.Shahzad. ,
2011, Small ruminant resistance against gastrointestinal nematodes: a case of Haemnchus
concortus., Parasitology Research., 109, 1483-1500
Saddiqi, H.A., M.Nisa, N. Mukhtar, M. A. Shahzad, A. Jabbar and M. Sarwar., 2011,
Documentation of Physiological Parameters and Blood Profile in Newly Born Kajli Lambs.,
Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Science, 7, 912-918
18.
Khalid, M. F, M.A.Shahzad, M.Sarwar, A.U.Rehman, M.Sharif, N.Mukhtar., 2011,
Probiotics and lamb performance: A review. , African Journal of Agricultural Research., 6,
5198-5203
M.Nisa, Shahzad, M.A. M. Sarwar, C.J.C. Phillips., 2011, Responses to graded replacement
of urea by maize steep liquor in diets for intensively fed lambs for meat production., Tropical
Animal Health and Production., ,
Bhatti, S.A., M.F. Ahmed, P. C. Wynn, D. McGill, M. Sarwar, M. Afzal, E.Ullah, M. A.
Khan, M. S.Khan, R. Bush, H. M. Warriach, A. Khan, 2011, Effect of diet on preweaning
performance of Sahiwal calves., Trop Anim Health Prod., ,
Khalid, M.F., M. Sarwar, M. Nisa and Z. Rehman, , 2011, Response of growing lambs fed on
different vegetable protein sources with or without probiotics., Int. J. Agric. Biol.,, 13, 332338
Shahzad, M.A., N.A.Tauqir, M. Sarwar, M.Fayyaz, M.A.Tipu, J.I.Sultan., 2011, Performance
of lactating buffaloes as affected by varying concentrations of essential amino acids. XXXIV
CIOSTA CIGR V Conference 2011: Efficient and safe production processes in sustainable
agricultu, June 29 to 01 July 2011. Vienna, Austria. , ,
Shahzad, M.A., M.Rajoka, H.Nawaz,M.Nisa, M.Sarwar., 2011, Use of Aspergillus terreus for
microbial biomass production and its biological evaluation in broiler chicks. International
Conference on Food Enginering and Biotechnology,, May 28-29, Bangkok, Thailand. , ,
Shahzad, M.A., M.Sarwar, M.Nisa., 2011, Evaluation of corn steep liquor as potential
substitute of urea in growing buffalo calves. XXII Animal Production Latin-American
Meeting, October 24-26, Radisson Montevideo Victoria Plaza, Montevideo,, Arch.
Lactinoam Prod.Anim.Vol.19.Supl.1, 19,
Mukhtar, N., M.Sarwar, M.A.Shahzad, S.A.Bhatti and M.Nisa., 2011, Blood dynamics,
carcass characteristics and weight gain in post weaned lohi lambs raised under traditional and
high input feeding system.31st Pakistan
Congress of Zoology (International),, 19-21
April, 2011.University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad., ,
Nisa, M., M. Sarwar, M.A.Shazad and M.S. Qumar., 2011, Effect of conjugated linoleic acid
in the feed of ruminant animals on milk and cheese quality. International conference on
“Technical and Scientific Aspect of Dairy Products with special Reference to , Feb. 21-23
National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad., ,
Sharif, M., M.A.Shahzad, M.Nisa and M.Sarwar, 2010, Influence of Varying Level of
Dietary Cation Anion Difference on Ruminal Characteristics, Nitrogen Metabolism and in
Situ Digestion Kinetics in Buffalo Bulls, Animal Science Journal, 0,
Sharif, M., M.A.Shahzad, M.Nisa and M.Sarwar, 2010, Dietary cation anion difference:
Impact on productive and reproductive performance in animal agriculture, African Journal of
Biotechnology, 47, 7976-7988
Saeed, M., Z. Iqbal, A. Jabbar, S. Masood, W. Babar and H. A. Saddiqi, M. Yaseen, M.
Sarwar and M. Arshad, 2010, Multiple anthelmintic resistance and the possible contributory
factors in Beetal goats in an irrigated area (Pakistan), Research in Veterinary Sciences., 88,
267-272
Saddiqi, H.A., Z. Iqbal, M.N. Khan, M. Sarwar, G. Muhammad, M. Yaseen and A. Jabbar,
2010, Evaluation of three Pakistani sheep breeds for their natural resistance to artificial
infection of Haemonchus contortus, Veterinary Parasitology, 168, 141-145
Sarwar, M., M. Aasif Shahzad, M. Nisa, 2010, Small Ruminant Production in Pakistan,
Egyptian J. Sheep and Goat Sci, 5, 17-26
Iqbal, Z., M. Sarwar, M. S. Sajid, R. Z. Abbas, M. K. Khan, M. A. Shahzad1 and M. N.
Khan, 2010, For and against the use of condensed tannins for small ruminant production – a
critical analysis, Egyptian J. Sheep and Goat Sci, 5, 147-163
Shahzad, M. A., M. Sarwar, Mahr-un-Nisa, M. Sharif, 2010, Corn steep liquor, a potential
substitute of urea for growing lambs, Egyptian J. Sheep and Goat Sci, 5, 177-190
Sarwar, M., N. Mukhtar, M. A. Shahzad, Mahr-un-Nisa , 2010, Traditional versus high input
feeding system: impact on nutrients intake, blood dynamics, hormonal profile, weight gain
and economics in growing lambs, Egyptian J. Sheep and Goat Sci, 5, 127-145
Mahr-un-Nisa, M. A. Shahzad and M. Sarwar, 2010, Nutritional evaluation of enzose as
replacement of corn grain for growing lambs, Egyptian J. Sheep, 5, 165-176
Khan, M. L., M. Sharif, M. Sarwar, Sameea and M Ameen, 2010, Chemical composition of
different varieties of Linseed. , Pak. Vet. J, , 0, 79-82.
Bhatti. S. A, M. S. Khan, M.Sarwar and Ehsanullah, 2010, Organizing milk competition in
dairy animals: experience of a milk competition at University of Agric, Pak Vet Journal, 0,
255-259
Mukhtar, N., M. Sarwar*, Mahr-un-Nisa and M.A. Sheikh, 2010, Growth response of
growing lambs fed on concentrate with or without ionophores and probiotics., Int. J. Agric.
Biol, 12, 734–738.
Kamran, Z., M. Sarwar*, Mahr-un-Nisa, M.A. Nadeem and S. Mahmood., 2010, Effect of
low levels of dietary crude protein with constant metabolizable energy on nitrogen excretion,
litter composition and blood parameters of broilers, Int. J. Agric. Biol., , 12, 401-405
Muhammad, G., Sarwar, M., Sharif, M., 2009, Working conditions and nutritional aspects of
pneumatic cart pulling camels in Faisalabad metropolis., , 16 (2):, 183-187 .
Mushtaq, T., M. Sarwar, G. Ahmad, M.A. Mirza, T. Ahmad, M. Athar, M.M.H. Mushtaq and
U. Noreen. , 2009, Influence of pre-press solvent-extracted cottonseed meal supplemented
with exogenous enzyme and digestible lysine on performance. Digestibility, carcass and
immunity responses of broiler chickens. , , 93:, 253-262.
Mushtaq, T., M. Sarwar, G. Ahmad, M.A. Mirza, T. Ahmad, U. Noreen, M.M.H. Mushtaq
and Z. Kamran. , 2009, Influence of sunflower meal based diets supplemented with
exogenous enzyme and ?digestible lysine on performance, digestibility and carcass response
of ?broiler chickens. , , 149:, 275-286.
Sarwar, M., M.A. Khan, Mahr-un-Nisa, S.A. Bhatti and M.A. Shahzad., 2009, Nutritional
management for buffalo production., , 22:, 1060-1068.
Wynn, P.C., H.M. Warriach, A. Morgan, D.M. McGill, S. Hanif, M. Sarwar, A. Iqbal, P.A.
Sheehy and R.D. Bush., 2009, Perinatal Nutrition of the Calf and Its Consequences for
Lifelong Productivity. Asian-Austral. , , 22: , 756-764.
Khan, M.A., M. Sarwar, M.S. Khan, M.S. Rehman, M. Nisa, W.S. Lee and H.S. Kim. , 2008,
. Use of additives to capture nitrogen in ammoniated wheat straw: Intake, ruminal parameters,
digestibility and nitrogen utilization in buffaloes. , Livest. Sci. , 114:, 347-353.
Ali, C. S., T. Khaliq, M. Sarwar, A. Javaid, M.A. Shahzad, M. Nisa and S. Zakir, 2008,
Effect of various nonprotein nitrogen sources on in vitro dry matter digestibility, ammonia
production, microbial growth and pH changes by rumen bacteria., Pak. Vet. J. , 28:, 25-30.
Javaid, A., Mahr-un-Nisa, M. Sarwar, M.A. Shahzad. , 2008, Ruminal characteristics, blood
pH, blood urea nitrogen and nitrogen balance in Nili-Ravi buffalo (bubalus bubalis) bulls fed
diets containing various level of ruminally degradable protein. , Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. ,
21:, 51-58.
Kamran, Z., M. Sarwar, Mahr-un-Nisa, M.A. Nadeem, S. Mahmood, M.E. Babar and S.
Ahmed, 2008, Effect of low-protein diets having constant energy to protein ratio on
performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from one to thirty-five days of
age, Poult. Sci. , . 87: , 468-74.
Lateef, M., K.Z. Gondal, M. Younas, M. Sarwar, M.I. Mustafa and M.K. Bashir. , 2008, Milk
Production Potential of Purebred Holstein Friesian and Jersey Cows in Subtropical
Environment of Pakistan., Pak. Vet. J. , 28;, 9-12.
Khan, M.A., M. Sarwar, M.S. Khan, M.S. Rehman, Mahr-un-Nisa, W.S. Lee and H.S. Kim. ,
2008, Use of additives to capture nitrogen in ammoniated wheat straw: Intake, ruminal
parameters, digestibility and nitrogen utilization in buffaloes. , Livest. Sci. , 114, 347-353.
Nisa, M., A. Javaid, M. Sarwar, S.A. Bhatti and M.S. Amjad., 2008, Productive parameters as
affected by protein fraction in ruminants. , Pak. J. Agri. Sci. , 45:, 315-321.
Nisa, M., A. Javaid, M. Sarwar, M. A. Shahzad. , 2008, Influence of varying ruminally
degradable to undegradable protein ratio on nutrient intake, milk yield and nitrogen balance
in early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)., Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. , 21:,
1303-1311.
Mahr-un-Nisa, M.A. Shahzad, M. Sarwar and N.A. Tauqir, 2008, Influence of additives and
fermentation periods on silage characteristics, chemical composition, and in situ digestion
kinetics of jumbo silage and its fodder in Nili buffalo bulls. , Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. , 32:,
67-72.
Nisa, M., M.A. Shahzad and M. Sarwar. , 2008, Silage characteristics and chemical
composition of Jambo silage and its Fodder with different Additives and Fermentation
Periods and their In Situ Digestion Kinetics in Nili Ravi Buffalo bulls., Turk. J. Vet. Anim.
Sci. , 1:, 311-317.
Shahzad, M. A., M. Sarwar and M. Nisa. , 2008, Influence of altering dietary cation anion
difference on milk yield and its composition by early lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes in
summer., Livest. Sci. , 113:, 133-143.
Shahzad, M.A., M. Sarwar and Mahr-un-Nisa, 2008, Influence of varying dietary cation
anion difference on serum minerals balance and hypocalcaemia in Nili Ravi buffaloes.,
Livest. Sci. , 113:, 52-61.
Sarwar, M., M. Nisa, Z. Hassan and M. A. Shahzad., 2008, Influence of urea molasses treated
wheat straw fermented with cattle manure on chemical composition and feeding value for
growing buffalo calves. , Livest. Sci., 105:, 151-161.
Tauquir, N.A., Mahr-un-Nisa, M. Sarwar and S.A. Bhatti. , 2008, Impact of varying moister
levels, different additives and fermentation periods on nutritive value of leguminous and nonleguminous fodder silages in lactating Nili–Ravi buffalos. , Pak. J. Agri. Sci. , 45:, 386-492
Surayia, Z., M. Sarwar, C.A. Jonthan, M.S. Butt, Mahr-un-Nisa, C.S. Ali, A. Umair, J. Asif
and I. Din. , 2008, Sweet potato glycemic index in relation to serum glucose level in human
participants. , Int. J. Agric. Biol, 10:, 311-315
Sharif, M., M. Nisa, M. Sarwar and M.A. Shahzad. , 2008, . Influence of varying levels of
dietary cation anion difference on ruminal characteristics, acid base status and milk yield of
early lactating animals, Pak. J. Agric. Sci. , 45:, 288-296.
Zafar, I., M. Sarwar and M.N. Khan. , 2008, Animal health and production: a planned
integration of traditional and intensive production is a viable option for sustainable growth in
Pakistan., Pak. J. Agric. Sci., 45:, 333-338
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