Review Day 3 EOCT cell division, genetics, DNA

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Comparing Cell Division (Mitosis and Meiosis)
Step1: Label the cell cycle: Identify what is occurring during each stage of
the cell cycle.
G1
S
G2
M
G1, S, G2 make up what developmental stage before nuclear division?
Step 2: You will match up the pictures to the correct labels. Identify what is occurring in each stage of both processes.
Mitosis
Meiosis
Prophase
Prophase 1
Metaphase
Metaphase 1
Anaphase
Anaphase 1
Telophase
Telophase 1
Prophase 2
Metaphase 2
Anaphase 2
Telophase 2
Stage 3: Answer the following questions to compare Mitosis to Meiosis.
Mitosis
1. # of daughter cells
2. Haploid/diploid cells
3. Genetically Identical/different
4. Sexual/asexual
5. Gamete/somatic cell
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Meiosis
What is spermatogenesis, how many cells are produced, name of cells produced?
What is oogenesis, how many cells are produced, name of cell (s) produced?
What is crossing over, when and where does it occur?
What is the difference between plant and animal cells during cytokinesis?
Define homologous chromosome.
Stage 4:Mendelian Genetics
Directions: Match up the following terms with their definitions. Record answers on your sheet.
a) Cross between organisms that involve only one
1. Monohybrid _______
pair of contrasting traits.
2. Dihybrid
_______
3. Heterozygous _______
4. Homozygous
_______
5. Dominant
_______
6. Recessive
_______
7. Genotype
_______
8. Phenotype
_______
9. Punnett square _______
10. Law of segregation _______
11. Law of independent assortment _______
12. Allele
________
b) Law that states organisms inherit 2 copies of
genes one from each parent, and organisms
donate only one copy of each gene in their
games because the genes separate during
gamete formation.
c) Collection of all of an organism’s genetic
information that codes for traits.
d) Characteristic of having two of the same alleles
at the same locus of sister chromatids.
e) Characteristic of having two different alleles
that appear at the same locus of sister
chromatids.
f)
Allele that is expressed when two different
alleles are present in an organism’s genotype.
g) Cross between organisms involving two pairs of
contrasting traits.
h) Law that states that allele pairs separate from
one another during gamete formation.
i)
Model for predicting all possible genotypes
resulting from a cross or mating.
j)
Allele that is not expressed unless two copies
are present in an organism’s genotype.
k) Collection of all of an organism’s physical traits
l)
Different forms of the same gene.
Stage 5: (Mendel Genetics) Solve the following Punnett Square Problems. Record your answers.
#1 Monohybrid Cross: A red heterozygous flower is crossed with a blue flower. Red is dominant to blue. Show possible
offspring of this cross.
#2 Monohybrid cross: A purple homozygous leopard is crossed with a black homozygous leopard. Black is dominant to
purple. Show possible offspring of this cross.
#3 Dihybrid cross: A yellow, wrinkled pea plant is crossed with a green, smooth pea plant. Yellow is
dominant to green, wrinkled is also dominant to smooth. The yellow plant’s genotype is YYWw, the green plant’s
genotype is yyww. Show the possible offspring from this cross.
Stage 6: (Extending Mendel Genetics) Match the terms to the following definitions: Record the terms in the blanks
below.
1.___________________________Heterozygous genotype that equally expresses the traits from both alleles.
2. .___________________________Organism whose genome contains a gene for a certain trait or disease that is not
expressed in the organism’s phenotype.
3. .___________________________Heterozygous phenotype that is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes.
4. .___________________________Genes located on the sex chromosomes.
5. .___________________________Traits produced by two or more genes.
6. .___________________________More than two alleles are present in a gene pool for a trait.
7. .___________________________Maps of relative locations of genes on a chromosome.
8. .___________________________Chart used to trace phenotypes and genotypes within a family.
9. .___________________________A picture of all of the chromosomes in a cell.
Stage 7: (Extending Mendel Genetics) Solve the following problems. Record your answers.
1.Color blindness is a sex-linked trait. What is the probability that two parents with normal color
vision will have a color blind child and what are the sex or sexes of the offspring? (The mother's
father is color blind.) (XN = normal vision, Xn = colorblindness) (Show a Punnett square to prove
your answer!)
Probability:____________________ Sex of offspring:_____________________
In
2. In flowers, color is an incomplete dominance trait. When the genotype is heterozygous, the
phenotype is pink. Cross a pink flower with a pink flower. What will be the phenotypic
probabilities of the offspring? (R= red W=white) Be sure to write the phenotype AND the
percentage or fraction probability. (Show a Punnett square to prove your answer!)
Phenotype:_____________________ Probability:____________
3. In a particular breed of cattle, coat color is codominant. What are the possible phenotypic
probabilities that can result of a cross between a red bull and a roan (red and white hairs) cow? (R
= red hairs W = white hairs) Be sure to write the phenotype AND the percentage or fraction
probability. (Show a Punnett square to prove your answer!)
Phenotype:_________ ____________
4. Use a Punnett square to show the genotypic probabilities for blood type of the offspring of two
parents, one with blood type O and one with blood type AB. Be sure to write the genotype AND
the percentage or fraction probability.
Genotype:__________________
5. The following is a pedigree of myopia (near-sightedness). This
condition is caused by a recessive gene, but is NOT sex-linked.
Determine the genotype of the3 numbered individuals (Mark as MM,
Mm, mm, or M _ if you cannot determine from the information
provided).
1:_________ 2:_________ 3:__________
Stage 8: (DNA Structure) Record answers to questions.
1. Describe the structure of a DNA molecule.
2. Name the scientists given credit for discovering the structure of the DNA molecule.
3. List the parts of a nucleotide.
4. What are the 4 nitrogen containing bases found in DNA?
5. What type of bond holds the nitrogen bases together?
6. What is DNA replication considered semiconservative?
Match the following terms with their definitions. Record the answers on your sheet.
1. ______________________Monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogencontaining base.
2. ______________________Sugar found in DNA
3. ______________________Enzyme used unzip DNA for replication to occur.
4. ______________________Enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA
during replication.
Stage 9. (DNA Replication) Create the complementary strand of DNA to the following strand: AAT GAT CAC AGT ACC
AGG. Record answer below.
__________________________________________________________
Stage 10: (RNA)Answer the following questions on your sheet.
1.
2.
3.
4.
What is the sugar found in RNA?
What are the 4 nitrogen bases found in RNA?
Where does transcription occur in the cell?
Where does translation occur in the cell?
Match the following terms to their definitions. Record your answers on your sheet.
1._________________Set of 3 nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during
translation.
2. _________________Sequence of three nucleotides that code for one amino acid.
3. _________________States that information flows in one direction, from DNA to RNA to proteins.
4. _________________Enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule.
5. _________________Message that is translated to form a protein.
6. _________________Forms part of the ribosomes, a cell’s protein factory.
7. _________________Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein.
8. _________________Bonds formed between amino acids to link them together.
Stage 11: (Protein Synthesis) Model the process of transcription. Record your answers.
Transcribe the following sequence of DNA into mRNA.
ACG TAT TCA AAC CAT AAT
____________________________________________
Model the process of translation. Record your answers.
Translate the following sequence of mRNA into a protein sequence.
AUG GGU CCG GAC CAG UGA
____________________________________________
Stage 12. (Genetic Engineering)
Match the following terms to their definitions: Record the answers.
1. ____________________ Enzymes the cut DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences.
2. ____________________ Method of separating various lengths of DNA strands by applying an electrical current
to a gel.
3. ____________________ Technique that produces millions of copies of a specific DNA sequence in just a few
hours.
4. ____________________ A representation of parts of an individual’s DNA that can be used to identify a person at
the molecular level.
5. ____________________ Genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism.
6. ____________________ DNA that contains genes from more than one organism.
7. ____________________ Organism that has one or more genes from another organism inserted into its genome.
8. ____________________ Study of genomes that includes the sequencing of all of an organism’s DNA.
9. ____________________ Process of testing DNA to determine a person’s risk of having or passing on a genetic
disorder.
10. ____________________ The replacement of a defective or missing gene, or the addition of a new gene, into a
person’s genome to treat a disease.
11. _____________________ Failure of homologous chromosomes to separate.
12. _____________________ Factors that may cause cancer and found in the environment.
DNA mutations Stage 13
Directions:
1. Sort the terms into either Gene mutations or Chromosome mutations. Record your answers on your sheet.
Gene
Chromosome
Step 2. Match the term to the picture. Record your answers on your sheet.
Picture 1.
Picture 2.
Picture 3.
Picture 4
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