Climatology Study Guide 1. Increasing latitude has what impact on solar energy? 2. Explain the location relative to the equator of the following zones: a. Desert zone: b. Tropical zone: c. Polar zone: d. Temperate zone: 3. Define the rain shadow effect: . a. What happens as the air is moving up the westward side? b. What happens as the air is moving down the leeward side? 4. What happens to temperature as altitude increases in the troposphere? 5. How does the temperature of a large body of water impact the local climate? 6. How are heat and moisture distributed around the Earth? 7. What could happen as a result of low-pressure zones at the equator? 8. What processes do plants use to release, produce, and convert energy? 9. How are vegetation and climate related and what factors influence each other? 10. What factors are the Koppen Climate Classification system based on? 11. How does climate type affect the seasons? 12. Interpret a climate graph as it relates to precipitation and/or temperature 13. How does evaporation rate versus precipitation totals define climate classification? 14. What factors may cause long-term changes in climate? 15. Define the greenhouse effect. What are the two most important greenhouse gases in the lower atmosphere? 16. Make sure you can describe the following characteristics of greenhouse gases: absorption, production, and effect on incoming solar radiation. 17. What is the relationship between fossil fuels and the greenhouse effect? 18. What has happened to Earth’s average surface temperature during the twentieth century? 19. What are at least two consequences of a global rise in sea level? 20. How will hurricanes be affected by global warming? Why? 21. What is a heat island? How does it affect the microclimate of an area?