Grammar Terms for Grammar Crunch Instructions: As we read

Grammar Terms for Grammar Crunch
Instructions: As we read William Strunk’s Elements of Style, we will encounter many of the following
grammatical terms that accompany the basic rules of grammar that students most often violate. In
addition, any of these terms could appear as AP multiple-choice potential answers. AP test writers
consider the grammatical questions as those that require knowledge and application levels of thinking;
in short, these questions are “give me” questions, ones you should not miss. Also, these terms will assist
you in the analysis of syntax in any given passage.
Define each of the following terms, provide examples, and explain possible effects of specific syntactical
structures. You may group your terms synonymously for efficiency, supplying one example for the
group. You may use Strunk’s book or any notes that you take in class as we “Do the Grammar Crunch.”
You are to create your own grammar handbook, which will be graded for completion, neatness, and
sophistication (effects of specific syntactical structures). You will use your handbook to review for the
AP exam.
Simple sentence
Compound sentence
Complex sentence
Compound-complex sentence
Loose sentence (Cumulative Sentence)1
Periodic sentence
Parallel sentence
Balanced sentence
Independent clause
Main clause
Dependent clause
Co-ordinate clause
Conjunctive adverbs
Parenthetic expressions
Non-restrictive relative clause
Relative restrictive clause
Comma splice
Run-on sentence
Purposeful fragment
Participial phrase
Prepositional phrase
Appositive phrase
Adjective phrase
Noun clause
Adjective clause
Adverb clause
Direct object
Indirect object
Objective complement
Predicate nominative
Predicate adjective
Split infinitives
Possessive singular noun
Final consonant
Possessive plural noun
Pronominal (possessive) nouns
Apostrophe (the punctuation mark)
Rubric for Grammar Handbook
Completion (35 definitions, 20 examples, 10 effects)
Clearly numbered or somehow delineated for grading ease,
even possibly writing a description of your format for clarity
Sophistication (in examples and effects and originality)
50 pts
If hand-written, the handwriting must be neat, and no writing
should appear on the backs of pages.
25 pts
25 pts