GridComputing: Introduction and Overview Student: Tripti College: Raj Kumar Goel institute of technology for women Abstract: This paper provides an introduction and overview of the overwhelming technology grid computing. Rapid growth has been exhibited in last few years regarding the exponential increase in the processing power of the computers, data storage and communication. But there still lies many more complex and computational intensive problems, which are problems even for the supercomputers .Heterogeneous resources are the solution to problems. Grid computing is the new method of pooling the resources for solving large and complex problems. This paper unveil the underlying concepts of Grid computing. Index Terms-Grid Computing 1. INTRODUCTION Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple resources to reach a common goal. The grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non interactive workloads that involve a large number of files. The major goal of distributed computing research was to give us an easy , simple and transparent method of access to a vast set of heterogeneous resources. This is generally known as meta computing. Meta computing done on local area networks is known as Cluster computing and those which are done on wide are networks are known as Grid computing. This paper deals with the later one. communications and storage technologies. Grid computing is rapidly emerging as dominant paradigm for wide area distributed computing and the Global grid Forum 1 are investing considerable effort in developing and enabling seamless and secure discovery access to , and interactions among resources , services and applications. This potential for aggregation , integration and interactions has also made it possible for scientists and engineers to conceive a new generation of applications that enable realistic investigation of complex scientific and engineering problems. evolution of grid computing from its roots in the parallel and distributed computing to its current state and emerging trends and visions. 3. COMPUTATIONAL GRID 2. GRID COMPUTING - AN EVOLVING VISION The grid vision has been describes as a world in which computational power (resources, services, data)is readily available as electrical power and other utilizes, in which computer services make this computational services available to users with different level of expertise in diverse areas , and in which these services can interact to perform specified tasks efficiently and securely with minimal human intervention. Driven by revolutions in science and business are fueled by exponential advances in computing, A computational grids is a hardware and software infrastructure that provides dependable, consistent, pervasive access to computational capabilities. 3.1 Characteristics of computational Grid  There are many desirable properties and features that are required by a grid to provide users with a computing environment. They are follows Heterogeneity The grid involves a number of resources that are varied in nature and can encompass a large geographical distance through various domains. Scalability The grid should be tolerant to handle a large number of nodes without any performance degradation. Adaptability or Fault tolerant In a grid unexpected computational aborts, hard or software fault are high . These faults are generally handled by resource managers. Security All the user participating computers should be protected from any malicious manipulations. characteristics and requirements. Because of this reason we cannot have a uniform single architecture . But in general we can identify basic services that almost all the grid will provide through different grids will different approaches for the realization of services. This description of grid architecture does provide a complete enumeration of all the required protocols and services but it identifies the requirements for general class of components. This architecture organizes the components into layers as shown in Figure2. Application 3.2 Grid Components Collective The major components that necessary to form a grid are shown in Figure 1. Resources The components are as follows: User level This layer houses the Application and High level interfaces. Applications can be varied and encompass large variety of problems from chemistry to nuclear engineering. This high level interfaces implement an interface and protocols allowing the applications and users to access the middle ware services. Middleware Level The major functionalities of systems normally occur in this layer. This layer provide many services like Resource discovery resource scheduling and allocation, fault tolerance , security mechanism and load balancing. It should provide users the transparent view of the resources available. Resource Level This layer typically provides local services that render computational resources like CPU cycles, storage, computers, Networks infrastructure, software etc. 4. GRID ARCHITECTURE Computational grid have to be designed so as to serve different communities with varying char t Connectivity The layers of the grid are as follows :  Fabric Layer This layer provide the resources ,which could comprise computers(PC’s running windows NT or unix), storage devices and databases. The resources could also be logical entity such as distributed file system or computer pool. Excellent fabric functionally could mean that sophisticated complicated operations can be accomplished . For this it could support enquiry mechanism to discover their state , structure and capabilities. It should also have resource management mechanism that provide some control of delivered quality of service. Connectivity Layer This layer builds on the connectivity layer communication and authentication protocols enable the exchange of data between fabric layer resources. For communication transport , naming and routing are required. These protocols Can be drawn from TCP/IP protocol stack. Resource Layer distinguished primarily into classes , which This layer builds on the connectivity layer communication and authentication protocols to define Application Program Interfaces (API) and software develop kit (SDK) for secure negotiation, initiation, monitoring and control, accounting and payment of sharing operations. The protocols , which the resources layer implement to achieve the above functionality are implemented with the help of function provided by the fabric layer. Resource layer protocol can be are Information Protocols and Management Protocols. i) Information Protocol This protocol is used to obtain the necessary information about the structure and the state of the resources. ii) Management Protocol In order to negotiate the access resources this protocol is used. Collective Layer This layer is different from the resource layer in t5he sense, while resource layer concentrates on interactions with single resource ; this layer helps in coordinating multiple resources . Its tasks can be varied like directory services , Co-allocation and scheduling , monitoring, diagnostic services, and software discovery services. Application Layer This layer consists of the user applications and programs and which call upon another layer. 5. GRID COMPUTING PROJECT Grid computing is an active research area and is being worked on worldwide . There are many projects that are being carried out and they can be classified accordingly as : Mix and Match approach Ex: Globus Problem solving Environment approach Ex: Netsolve Inter / www approach Ex: SETI Object oriented approach. 6. GRID APPLICATIONS COMPUTING GRID Resources can be used to solve complex problems in many areas like high –energy physics , biophysics , nuclear simulations, weather monitoring and predictions , financial analysis , chemical engineering etc. Projects, such as SET @home and Distributed . Net , builds grids by linking multiple low end computational resources , like PCs, from the internet to detect extraterrestrial intelligence and crack security algorithms respectively. 7. CONCLUSION There are many grid computational projects like globus, netsolve, entropia, SETI  . condor, legion which are constantly improving the grid architecture and application interface . Grid computing has serious consequences and its implications are enormous in the field of grid computing. Today large scale parameter study application are using computational grid resources to crack algorithms and search for extraterrestrial intelligence. 9. REFERENCES  http://www.gridcomputing.com  M.A Baker, R.Buyya and D. Laforenza, The Grid: International Efforts In Global Computing, SSGRR 2000 The Computer & e Business Conference ,Italy JULY 31. 2000August 6- 2000  Vincet Neri, Gilles Fedak and Franck Cappello Xtremo Web : building an experimental platform for Global computing Grid 2000 December 2000. IEEE press.  Foster .I., Kesselman, C. and Tuecke, S. The Anatomy of the grid: Enabling scalable Virtual Organizations. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications , 15(3).200-222.2001  l. Foster and C. Kesselman , editors, The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure . 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