DNB Orthopaedics Theory Papers
December 2010
Paper I
1. Define neuropathic joint. List the causes of neuropathic joint. Mention in brief the
clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic joint.
2. Define gout. Describe in brief its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.?
3. Describe the broad principles of tendon transfer. Enumerate the tendon transfer
for high radial nerve palsy.
4. Describe the broad principles of tendon transfer. Enumerate the tendon transfer
for high radial nerve palsy.
5. Draw a labeled diagram of brachial plexus. Classify brachial plexus injury.
Describe the clinical features and management of lower brachial
plexus injury.
6. Describe various types of lumbar root anomalies. List the complications of lumbar
disc surgery.
7. Define "Fat Embolism Syndrome". Describe in brief the clinical - features,
diagnosis and management of "Fat Embolism Syndrome".
8. Define Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) of bone. Describe in brief clinical
features, diagnosis and management principles of GCT of upper end
of tibia.
9. Describe aetiopathogenesis of avascular necrosis of hip. Classify
avascular necrosis of hip. Comment on broad principles of its
10. Define ochronotic arthropathy. Describe its clinical features, diagnosis and
Paper II
1. Define congenital muscular torticollis. List the differential diagnosis and outline
the management of congenital muscular torticollis.
2. Describe the blood supply of scaphoid. Describe the clinical features, diagnosis
and management of nonunion of scaphoid.
3. Define ulnar claw hand. Enumerate the causes of ulnar claw hand. Discuss its
4. Describe Dupuytren disease and its characteristic f,eatures. Describe in brief its
pathogenesis prognosis and management.
5. Describe the hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis. Describe in brief the Pathoanatomy
Define pseudoarthrosis of tibia. Describe its pathogenesis, diagnosis,
classification and management
Define Legg Calves Perthes disease. Describe its clinical features, diagnosis and
Classify physeal injuries. Describe the management and complications of various
types of physeal injuries.
List the causes of limp in a child.
Describe the Pathology and radiological signs in rickets and scurvy.
Paper III
1. Classify proximal humerus fracture. Discuss the management options for various
types. Outline the management for type IV fracture in elderly females.
2. Describe pitfalls in using the Locking Compression Plate.
3. Classify open fractures of tibia. Describe the management of type 3 b open
fracture of tibia.
4. Describe briefly the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, investigations and
treatment of painful elbow following injury around elbow.
5. Describe classification of Monteggia fracture dislocation and its management.
6. Define nonunion. Describe the classification and broad principles of management
of diaphyseal nonunion.
7. Define Tension Band principle. Describe the use of Tension Band principle in
fracture surgery.
8. Define external fixation. Classify the external fixators. Describe the advantages
and disadvantages of external fixation.
9. Classify thoracolumbar spine injuries. Give radiological classification of burst
fracture. Outline the management of burst fracture of LI vertebra.
10. Describe various methods of treatment of distal radius fracture with their
Paper IV
1. Describe different types of bone grafts along with their properties.
2. Describe the phases of normal gait and the types of muscle contractions in gait
3. Write short note on Nuclear medicine and its applications in Orthopedics.
4. What is flap reconstruction? Write its classification.
5. What are the types of epiphysis? Describe the types, various methods and
indications of epiphysiodesis.
6. Write short note on Coxa Vara.
7. Describe pathogenesis of acute compartment syndrome and its diagnosis.
8. Name biomaterials used in orthopedics. Describe in brief their features.
9. Describe nerve injuries, Sunderland Classification, outcome expected and basis
of repair.
10. Describe the various foot and ankle deformities in cerebral palsy and their
June 2010
Paper I
Acute compartment syndrome.
Gene therapy in orthopaedics.
Vitamin D resistant rickets.
Advances in medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Management of multiple rib fractures with haemothorax.
Differentiating features of head injury from cerebral symptoms of fat embolism
7. Haemophilic arthropathy.
8. PET scan in orthopaedics practice.
9. Automatic bladder.
10. Electrodiagnostic studies.
Paper II
1. Salter Harris classification of epiphyseal injuries and it’s relevance to skeletal
2. Principles of management of radial nerve injury.
3. Ponseti method of CTEV management.
4. Salter’s osteotomy.
5. Floor reaction orthosis.
6. Klippel Feil syndrome.
7. Claw hand.
8. Tom Smith arthritis.
9. Principle of amputation of lower limbs in children.
10. Patho-anatomy and management of congenital vertical talus.
Paper III
1. Principles, merits & demerits of locking plates.
2. Damage control orthopaedics.
3. Describe the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of acute spinal
cord injury.
4. Classify distal radius fractures. What are the recent trends in their management?
5. Methods for reducing risks of blood transfusion.
6. Evaluation and principles of management of fracture acetabulum.
7. Classify peri-prosthetic fractures following THR. Outline theis management
8. Shoulder instability.
9. Distraction histiogenesis.
10. Classify fracture calcaneum and describe their management.
Paper IV
Biological enhancement of fracture healing.
High tibial osteotomy.
Concepts of total knee replacement.
Recent advances in bearing surfaces of total hip arthroplasty.
DVT prophylaxis.
Management of metastasis in spine.
Describe blood supply of long bones and effects of various modalities of fixation
on this.
8. Multi-organ dysfunction syndrome.
9. Management of congenital scoliosis.
10. Enumerate various diagnostic tests with their relative merit for post-operative
infection. Outline the treatment of post-operative infection after internal fixation
December 2009
Paper I
1. Post-operative pain management. Describe patient control analgesia.
2. Clinical features and management of stove in chest.
3. Indications of Limb salvage surgery in malignant bone tumors. Describe the
techniques of limb salvage in osteosarcoma.
4. Uses of botulinum neurotoxin in Orthopaedic surgery.
5. Define pigmented villonodular synovitis. Describe pathology, clinical features,
diagnosis & its treatment.
6. Give a functional classification of muscles around the shoulder. Enumerate the
indications for shoulder arthrodesis. What are the pre-requisites for a good
result? Describe any one technique of shoulder arthrodesis.
7. Describe pathophysiology of nerve compression (entrapment) syndromes.
Enumerate various syndromes of nerve entrapment. Give an outline of the
management of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome.
8. What is traumatic arthrotomy of the knee joint? What is fluid challenge test to
confirm the diagnosis in doubtful cases? Outline the principles of management.
9. What are the various causes of late onset paraplegia in tuberculosis of spine?
Describe the investigative modalities and outline the principles of management.
10. Describe the management of unicompartmental osteoarthrosis knee.
Paper II
Management of septic arthritis in children.
Pathophysiology, types and clinical features of Osteogenesis Imperfecta.
Prognostic factors and outcome in the treatment of Perthe’s disease.
Describe Madelung deformity, classification, clinical features and management of
Perthe’s disease.
5. Classify congenital dislocation of knee. Comment on differential diagnosis and
6. Draw a diagram of Floor Reaction Orthosis, What is a good indication for its use.
Describe mechanism of action.
7. Orthopaedic manifestation of neurofibromatosis.
8. Describe muscular dynamics in calcaneovalgus deformity. Describe
management in patients before and after attaining skeletal maturity.
9. Classification of neurogenic bladder and management.
10. What are closed chain and open chain exercises and discuss ACL rehabilitation
Paper III
1. Classification, management and complication of fractures of the femoral head
and neck in children.
2. What are Monteggia equivalents, discuss the principles of management of
Monteggia fracture dislocation in children.
3. Principles of management of a pulseless hand after supracondylar fractures in
4. Role of ultrasound in fracture healing.
5. Subacromial impingement syndrome.
6. Describe indications for amputation, Principles of lower limb amputation in
7. What is Mangled Extremity severity score(MESS), describe principles of flap
coverage in proximal one third of tibia.
8. Classify ankle fractures, which pattern has syndesmotic instability, what is their
9. What are biodegradable implants, what is their chemical composition? Mention
the indications of their use, advantage and disadvantage of their use.
10. What is central cord syndrome, describe its clinical presentation. How will you
manage such a case?
Paper IV
1. Osteochondral allograft transplantation. Mention indications for the procedure.
2. Role of Pamidronate in bone metastasis.
3. What do you understand by patellar instability, describe the principles of
management, before and after skeletal maturity?
4. Enumerate modalities leading to biological enhancement of fracture healing.
Mention the methods of preservation of allogenic bone grafts. Comment on mode
of action, advantages and disadvantages.
5. Describe the pathogenesis of hallux valgus deformity; describe the role of
metatarsus primary varus in the pathogenesis. How will you manage an
adolescent girl with severe hallux valgus?
6. Describe various types of rickets; describe biochemical changes and clinical
presentation of various types of rickets.
7. Define osteoporosis. Comment on types, causes and management.
8. What is highly cross linked polyethylene? How is it manufactured? How has it
affected modern total hip arthroplasty?
9. Anatomy of Lisfranc joint, and management of injuries around the joint.
10. Describe gate control theory of pain. What is transcutaneous nerve stimulation
and its indications?
June 2009
Paper I
1. Briefly describe the stages of fracture healing. Discuss physical or chemical
modalities to enhance fracture healing.
2. Discuss prophylaxis against secondary complications of patient with polytrauma.
3. Ganz antishock pelvic fixator.
4. Describe musculoskeletal manifestations of HIV infected patients.
5. Describe pathogenesis of medial compartment osteoarthrosis. Discuss pros &
cons of HTO vs unicondylar replacement.
6. Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome.
7. Osteofibrous Dysplasia.
8. Enumerate indications & various techniques for shoulder arthrodesis. What are
the prerequisites for a good result?
9. What is malalignment test? Discuss principles of focal dome osteotomy.
10. Gene therapy in Orthopedics.
Paper II
1. Enumerate the causes of intoeing gait. How will you treat intoeing gait because
of hip disorders.
2. What is congenital coxa vara? Describe its pathophysiology and outline
principles of management.
3. Ober’s test.
4. Briefly discuss the clinical features and pathology of Ewing’s Sarcoma. Outline
the principles of treatment in a case of Ewing’s Sarcoma of upper end of
5. How will you evaluate a child with genu valgum deformity? Outline the principles
of management. What is timed epiphysiodesis?
6. Thermoplastic splints.
7. Classify nerve injuries. What is the role of electrodiagnosis in differentiating
various nerve lesions?
8. Discuss the principles of rehabilitation of a paraplegic patient.
9. Briefly describe the principles & steps of Ponsetti’s method of CTEV correction.
10. Enumerate various causes of claw hand. What is the pathogenesis of clawing?
Discuss the principles of surgical correction.
Paper III
1. Classify fractures of calcaneum. Outline the principles of management.
2. Elaborate the principles of LCP. What are the applications in periarticular
3. Classify epiphyseal injuries. Describe the complications. What is Langenskiold’s
4. Current concepts in the management of fracture neck & head of radius in
children and adults.
5. Classify flexor tendon injuries of the hand. Describe the treatment of neglected
ruptures of flexor tendons in Zone II.
6. Outline the principles of management in a case of infected non union of a long
bone. How will you treat infected non union of tibia?
7. Classify fractures of the acetabulum. Discuss radiographic evaluation of
acetabular trauma.
8. How will you manage a case of knee dislocation with absent distal pulsations?
9. Describe instability patterns after wrist trauma. Discuss the management of VISI
(Volar Intercalated Segment Instability)
10. How will you differentiate between the cerebral sign as a result of head injury vs
fat embolism syndrome? Describe in brief management of fat embolism
Paper IV
1. Autologous Transfusion.
2. Describe the anatomy of Distal Radio Ulnar Joint. Describe indications &
technique of performing Kapandji’s procedure.
3. Sexual Dimorphism in orthopedic practice.
4. Brown Tumor.
5. Surgical Dislocation of Hip.
6. Describe anatomical classification of chronic osteomyelitis. Discuss the principles
of management based on this classification. How will you fill the dead space after
excision of infected tissue?
7. Describe the presentation of tourniquet palsy and its causes. What precautions
are taken to prevent it?
8. Describe the anatomy of PCL. Discuss its significance in Total Knee Arthroplasty.
9. Describe the basic principle of PET scan and discuss its role in orthopedics.
10. What is pelvic support osteotomy? Outline its principles and operative technique.
December 2008
Paper I
1. Discuss Anatomy of rotator cuff. What is rotator cuff disease? Discuss its
pathogenesis and management.
2. Define and classify Rickets. Describe pathogenesis, clinical features and
management of hypophosphatemic rickets.
3. What are Biochemical markers for bone formation and bone resorption. Discuss
their role in management of osteoporosis.
4. Discuss causes of loosening after a total hip replacement. Discuss its clinical
features, diagnosis and management.
5. Discuss various methods available for treatment of Giant cell tumor of proximal
tibia in a 30 yr. old man.
6. What is claudication? Classify it and discuss its cause specific management.
7. Discuss the etiology, Pathology , diagnosis, and management of Gas Gangrene
of the Lower Extremity.
8. Discuss approach to find out a primary tumor in a 65 yr. Old man presenting with
vertebral metastasis and low backache.
9. Discuss differential diagnosis in a 25 yr. old male presenting with mono-articular
arthritis of knee joint. Tabulate the management in an algorithmic manner.
10. What is Marfan’s syndrome? What is its orthopaedic management?
Paper II
1. Classify elbow dislocation. How will you manage an unreduced posterior
dislocation elbow in 10 yr. old child?
2. Define and classify cerebral palsy. Describe crouched gait and its management
in a 10 yr. old child.
3. Describe various systems, implants available for limb length equalization.
Discuss their underlying principle.
4. Give one example each of concentric and eccentric contraction during gait cycle.
How will paralysis of tibialis anterior affect normal gait.
5. Describe Salter’s osteotomy. What are its indications, merits and demerits.
6. What is thoracic outlet syndrome? Discuss its Anatomy . How will you diagnose it
in OPD?
7. Discuss sexual and bladder rehabilitation of a 30 yr. old male following a
complete spinal injury at D12 vertebral level.
8. Discuss indications, merits and demerits of talectomy.
9. Discuss orthotic management in a High Radial Nerve Palsy.
10. Discuss various functions of hand. How will you attain key pinch in a quadriplegic
with no useful power?
Paper III
1. What is Polytrauma? Describe the scoring method & principles of management
of a patient with polytrauma in accident & emergency department.
2. Describe clinical features, diagnostic criteria and treatment of fat embolism
3. What is floating knee? Discuss its management in a 25 yr. Old adult.
4. Describe various clinical methods to diagnose anterior cruciate ligament injury.
Describe post operative management of ACL reconstruction by a bone patellar
tendon bone graft.
5. Discuss the principles of management of Non-Union fracture Neck of Femur in
an adult.
6. What is a Toddler’s fracture? Discuss its differential diagnosis and management.
7. How will you transport an organ after amputation to a sterilized centre for reimplantation? What is the order of implantation in a below elbow amputation?
8. Classify peri prosthetic fracture following a total hip replacement. Discuss their
9. Discuss the principles and the biomechanics of intra-medullary nailing.
10. Classify Pilon fractures and discuss their management.
Paper IV
1. What is multi system organ failure? What are indicators of mortality? Write briefly
about diagnosis and management.
2. Define and classify VIC. Describe its surgical and orthotic management in Grade
II VIC of forearm.
3. Describe arches of foot. Classify Flat Foot & briefly discuss the management
principles of flat feet in a child.
4. What are the anatomical & physiological differences between neck shaft angle
and version in a child and adult?
5. Discuss principle of chondroplasty in osteoarthritis of knee joint.
6. Define multidirectional instability of shoulder joint. Discuss its management.
7. Discuss the role of injectable steroids following spinal injury.
8. Discuss various methods of preventing deep vein thrombosis following total knee
replacement. Discuss their merits & demerits.
9. What are indications of arthrography in a hip? Discuss various approaches to
aspirate the hip joint.
10. What is the indication & principle behind parathormone therapy for treatment of
osteoporosis? What are its merits & demerits?
June 2008
Paper I
1. Femoro acetabular impingement syndrome.
2. Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis. Diagnosis and management.
3. Management of Brachial artery injury in association with supracondylar fracture
of humerus.
4. Differentiating features between Osteonecrosis and transient migratory
5. Discuss the diagnosis and clinical features of DVT in orthopedic surgery. Outline
the management. What special precautions are required if post-operative
epidural analgesia is used for 4 – 5 days.
6. Discuss the approach to a patient with suspected bony metastasis with unknown
primary tumor.
7. Enumerate the radiological types of Tuberculosis Hip. How does this
classification help us in prognostication?
8. Discuss the approach to a patient of pelvic fracture with a suspected abdominal
9. Enumerate various methods of ACL Reconstruction. Discuss the pros & cons of
each method.
10. Bone defects encountered during total knee replacement and their management.
Paper II
1. Discuss the types of equines contracture in cerebral palsy and its management.
2. Describe the Anatomy of iliotibial band and the effect of its contracture on the
lower limb. How do you clinically detect the contracture?
3. Renal Osteodystrophy.
4. Scheurmans disease.
5. Pathophysiology of claw hand and its treatment.
6. Discuss the management of flexor tendon injury in zone II.
7. Describe the orthotic management of an asensate foot particularly in reference to
8. What are the various types of exercises? Discuss the benefits and indications of
isometric exercises.
9. What is paraffin wax? How is it useful in treatment of orthopedic conditions?
What are the indications and contraindications of wax bath therapy?
10. Define ankle foot orthosis. What are the plastic materials used in fabrication.
Describe indications and care during daily use.
Paper III
1. Describe the causes of ulnar wrist pain after healing of a distal radial fracture and
discuss the management.
2. Damage control orthopaedics .
3. Classify fractures of acetabulum and role of conventional radiology in the
4. Classify ankle injuries. Which fracture patterns have syndesmotic instability &
how do you manage it?
5. Classify fractures of the proximal humerus. What is the relevance of blood supply
of humerus in planning management? How will you treat four part fractures?
6. Discuss the advances in the management of periarticular fractures.
7. Describe the mechanism of injury & clinical presentation of various incomplete
spinal cord syndromes.
8. Differentiating features in the patho Anatomy & management of intracapsular
fracture neck of femur in children & adults.
9. Advances in treatment of osteoporotic fractures.
10. Discuss the clinical features & management of Achilles tendinopathy in athletes.
Paper IV
Biological therapy in inflammatory arthritis.
Trochanteric flip osteotomy in surgical exposures of the hip joint.
Rationale for using metallic implants in osteoarticular tuberculosis.
Clinical differentiation between pre-ganglionic and postganglionic lesions of
brachial plexus & its effect on the management.
5. Transcutaneous nerve stimulation.
6. Define femoral anteversion. How do you detect it clinically? Discuss the role of
anteversion in orthopaedics diagnosis & management.
7. Pathophysiology of lumbar canal stenosis.
8. What are bisphosphonates? Discuss the role of Bisphosphonates in various
orthopedic disorders.
9. Describe the blood supply of a long bone. Discuss the effects of various
modalities of internal fixation on the blood supply.
10. Biodegradable orthopedic implants .
December 2007
Paper I
Management of multiple rib fracture with Haemopneumothorax.
Filum terminale syndrome.
Management of skeletal metastasis.
Round cell tumour. Discuss the management of multiple myeloma.
5. Osteoporosis.
6. Management of fat embolism.
7. Exertional compartment syndrome.
8. Management of haemarthrosis of knee developing in an injury.
9. Role of labeled WBC and multiphasic bone scan in bone Pathology.
10. Tuberculosis of hip joint.
Paper II
Etiology and pathological Anatomy of DDH.
Mid carpal instability.
Surgical principles of flexor tendon repair.
Klippel feil syndrome.
Indications of amputation. Describe surgical principles of amputation in children
and adults.
6. Pes planus.
7. Role and mode of action of pharmacological treatment in CP.
8. Calcaneovalgus deformity. Disscuss the treatment issues in mature and
immature foot.
9. Madelung deformity.
10. Shoulder instability .
Paper III
1. Indications of Valgus osteotomy for fracture neck of femur. Discuss the
preoperative planning, Implant choice, advantages and disadvantages of the
2. Guiding principles of removal of orthopaedic implants after fracture union. What
are the current recommendations for removal of implant in commonly
encountered fractures.
3. Classify Periprosthetic fractures around the knee. Outline the treatment strategy.
4. Classify fractures of the Capitullumn and discuss the management of each type.
5. Surgical Anatomy of AC joint along with classification of AC joint injuries. Briefly
discuss the management.
6. What are the various protocols which have been used for pharmacological
intervention in spinal cord injuries.what is the current opinion on pharmacological
7. Classify fractures of pelvis briefly discuss the management of rotationally
unstable and vertically stable injuries.
8. Various methods of fixing severely osteoporotic fractures.
9. What is LISS. Discuss its role in stabilizing fractures of distal femur.
10. What is ballistics. Briefly describe the current management of ballistic injuries of
the spine.
Paper IV
1. Biological enhancement of fracture healing.
2. Bearing surface of total hip arthroplasty.
3. Causes and treatment of thoracic outlet syndrome.
4. What are the musculo skeletal manifestations of retroviral infection.
5. High tibial osteotomy.
6. Discuss the pharmacological treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
7. Structure and function of articular cartilage.
8. Sickle cell disease.
9. Classify Spondylolisthesis. Describe the management.
10. Renal Rickets.
June 2007
Paper I
1. DIC.
2. Enumerate bleeding disorders . How will you manage a grossly arthritic Knee in
3. Tension Pneumothorax.
4. Decribe the various myocutaneous flaps used to cover tibia in different levels.
5. Primitive neuroectodermal tumours.
6. Pathogenesis of lumbar canal stenosis? What is the differentiating feature
between vascular & neurogenic claudication.
7. Briefly discuss the principles and priorities in managing polytrauma.
8. Loose bodies in knee – etiology? How will u manage a case of 30 year old
sportsman who presents with locked knee due to loose body.
9. How will u differentiate structural scoliosis from nonstructural scoliosis?describe
infantile idiopathic scoliosis. What is the importance of rib vertebral angle?
10. How will u manage a case of recalcitrant tennis elbow?
Paper II
1. Classify radial club hand. Describe the pathological Anatomy & management of a
1 yr old child?
2. Classify Coxa Vara. Describe the management of adolescent coax vara.
3. Describe the DD of cystic lesion in upper end of humerus in a 10 year old child.
Describe the management of SBC in same child.
4. Classify fracture neck of femur in children. Describe its management and
complications briefly.
5. Define Gait. Describe the aetiopathogenesis and causes of trendleberg gait.
6. What is symes amputation? Desribe the indications and complications. What is
the prosthesis suitable for symes amputation?
7. Describe briefly the clinical features and management of SCFE?
8. Neurological deficit in caries spine; types, pathogenesis and prognostic factors?
9. A one year old child has been successfully treated for CTEV. Describe the
orthotic management from this time to the completion of treatment?
10. Describe the pathological Anatomy of the bursae of the hand. Discuss the
etiology, clinical feature and management of acute infection in those bursae?
Paper III
Peritalar dislocation.
Chronic compartment syndrome.
Hanging cast.
What is unstable trochanteric fracture? Briefly describe the various methods of
managing unstable trochanteric fracture.
5. Discuss the indications pros and cons of reamed Vs undreamed intramedullary
6. Discuss the management of closed fracture shaft of humerus with radial nerve
7. Carpal instability – types, clinical features and radiological assessment.
8. Describe the Anatomy of Subacromial space. What is the morphology of
acromion process in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff tears? How will you manage
full thickness tear?
9. What is locked compression plate? Discuss the principles, clinical situations
where it is particularly useful.
10. How will you manage a case of acute Hemarthrosis Knee?
Paper IV
1. Describe Bone remodeling unit. Briefly describe the drugs which influence
2. PET Scan.
3. Wallerian degeneration.
4. Briefly describe the relevant biomechanics of the lower limb, particularly in
relation to bone cuts in total knee replacement.
5. Gate control theory of pain.
6. What is neuropraxia? How will you differentiate it from axonometsis during first
few days of injury.
7. Tribology.
8. Tumour induced osteomalacia.
9. Describe the histological zones of growth plate. Discuss the anatomical changes
which takes place in rickets and Slipped capital femoral epiphysis .
10. Discuss the pathogenesis of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. How does it
differ in different age groups .
December 2006
Paper I
1. Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation.
2. Features which differentiate head injury from the cerebral symptoms of Fat
Embolism syndrome.
3. Synovioma.
4. Otto Pelvis.
5. Principles of surface replacement arthroplasty of hip. What do you think are the
reasons of failure of previous historical designs compared to the modern
successful design?
6. What are the various methods of closing gaps between nerve ends during nerve
7. What are the indications of spinal osteotomy in ankylosing spondylitis? Describe
the various techniques.
8. Pathophysiology of septic shock.
9. Management of a patient having fracture pelvis with urinary retention. Restrict
yourself to the management of his urinary problem.
10. Kienbock’s disease.
Paper II
1. Name the prehensile movements of hand. What are the tendon transfers
described for opponens deficit hand?
2. Describe briefly indications, contraindications and principle technical steps of
Salter’s osteotomy.
3. How do principles of amputation differ in children as compared to adults? What is
pylon prosthesis? What are advantages and disadvantages?
4. What is the pathological Anatomy of carpal tunnel? Describe briefly the diagnosis
and management of carpal tunnel syndrome.
5. What are the hand deformities in rheumatoid arthritis? Describe the pathological
Anatomy and treatment of Boutannaire’s deformity.
6. Describe briefly the aetiology, clinical features and principles of treatment of Tom
Smith arthritis.
7. Outline the calcium metabolism. What do you mean by Vitamin D resistant
rickets? Describe its clinical features and management.
8. What is crutch palsy? Describe the orthotic management of wrist drop.
9. Describe the pathological Anatomy , clinical features and management of post
polio calcaneus deformity in a 12 yr. Old patient.
10. What is Floor Reaction Orthosis? Describe its parts and mechanism of function.
What are its indications and contraindications?
Paper III
1. Describe the mechanism of injury and clinical presentation of various incomplete
spinal cord syndromes.
2. What is Lisfranc joint? Classify injuries around this joint and principles of
3. Classify calcaneal fractures. Discuss the management based on classification
system. Enumerate the complications.
4. Enumerate Biodegradable implants. What are the advantages and
disadvantages of their use?
5. Classify periprosthetic fractures around the knee and discuss their management.
6. Classify fracture acetabulum and outline the indications of surgical treatment.
7. Classify ankle injuries. Which fracture patterns have syndesmotic instability and
how do you manage that?
8. Classify fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly. What is the relevance of
blood supply of the humeral head in planning management? How will you treat
four part fracture?
9. What is Gas Gangrene? Discuss the clinical features, bacteriology and principles
of management.
10. Describe the causes of ulnar wrist pain after healing of distal radius fractures.
Discuss the management of DRUJ disorders.
Paper IV
1. Describe the Physiology of micturition. Briefly discuss the management of
automatic bladder in spinal injuries.
2. Describe the arches of foot. Discuss the clinical features and management of
peroneospastic flat foot.
3. Describe the blood supply of femoral head. How does it differ in children and
4. Describe the properties of synovial fluids. How does it help in differentiating
various types of arthritis?
5. What are the stages of fracture healing? Discuss the factors regulating fracture
6. What are bone graft substitutes? How do they work?
7. Describe the metabolism of Vitamin D and its clinical significance.
8. What are Giant cell variants? Describe in brief their differential diagnosis.
9. What is DOTS? What is its rationale?
10. Pathoanatomy, radiology and diagnosis of Congenital vertical Talus.
June 2006
Paper I
1. Discuss the Pathology of osteoarthritis of knee with special reference to the role
of ACL rupture in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis knee.
2. Briefly describe the clinical features, types and management of osteoid osteoma.
3. Describe in detail the synovial fluid analysis. How do you differentiate various
types of arthritides based on the analysis?
4. Video Assisted Thoracoscopy.
5. Osteochondritis Dessicans.
6. Transient Migratory Osteoporosis of the hips.
7. Describe various types of skin grafts. Discuss the stages of biological
incorporation of skin grafts.
8. Discuss the pathogenesis of neurospinal claudication.
9. Automatic Dysreflexia.
10. Control of air quality in a modern orthopaedic operation theatre.
Paper II
1. Anterior Interosseous Nerve syndrome – Aetiology, clinical features, differential
diagnosis and management.
2. Dwyer’s osteotomy for CTEV – Indications, steps and complications.
3. Sprengel’s Deformity. Etio pathogenesis, clinical features and management.
4. Coxa Plana – Clinical, Radiological features, Differential diagnosis and principles
of treatment.
5. Boutannaire deformity – etiology, pathomechanics and management.
6. Ultrasonic Therapy – Physiological effects, clinical applications and
7. Quadriceps Paralysis Gait – pathomechanics, compensation employed and
corrective measures.
8. Suction Socket Prosthesis – principles, indications and advantages over
conventional prosthesis and main points in its construction.
9. Bowing of Tibia in children – Causes, types and management of Congenital
10. Equinus Deformity in cerebral palsy – Etiopathogenesis, evaluation and
Paper III
Fracture Talus.
Bennet’s Fracture dislocation.
Hangman’s Fracture.
Motor March.
Principles of Tendon Transfer.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.
7. Acromio clavicular Disruption.
8. Lateral Condyle fracture of Humerus.
9. Perilunar Dislocation.
10. Fracture Disease.
Paper IV
1. Etiopathogenesis, Pathology and management of DIC.
2. Congenital postural deformities associated with in-utero position.
3. Raloxifene.
4. Biomechanics of Knee in relation to total knee replacement.
5. Structure and Biochemistry of articular cartilage.
6. Bryant’s Traction.
7. Biochemical markers of Bone formation and resorption.
8. Describe pathological Anatomy and radiology in CTEV.
9. Stewart and Harnaley ankle arthrodesis.
10. Enumerate various deformities of foot and ankle seen in Post Polio Residual
Paralysis (PPRP). Describe in detail the management of Talipes Calcaneus .
December 2005
Paper I
1. Define entrapment syndrome. Enumerate various entrapment syndromes.
Discuss the entrapment syndrome in relation to the ulnar nerve in detail.
2. Bony changes in hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism along with
relevant pathophysiology.
3. Sports related injuries to soft tissues.
4. Suture Materials.
5. Finger Injuries.
6. Enumerate various classical levels of lower limb amputations. Discuss AK
amputation in detail. What is the difference in energy consumption by the patient
in AK amputation as compared to a BK amputation?
7. Respiratory Distress Syndrome.
8. Cool Intravenous Regional Anaesthesia in orthopedic practice.
9. Day Care Surgery.
10. Surgical audit.
Paper II
1. Congenital vertical Talus – Etiology, Pathology , clinical, radiological features and
2. Chiari Osteotomy – indications, advantages, steps of surgery.
3. Claw Hand – Etiology, patho-mechanics,principles of various corrective
4. Bowing of Tibia in children – Causes, types, clinical features & management of
congenital bowing of tibia.
5. Klippel-Fiel syndrome – Etiology, Pathology , clinical & radiological features,
differential diagnosis & management.
6. Microwave Diathermy – its physiogical effects, clinical applications &
7. Describe various types of Crutches ; gait pattern with crutches.
8. Cool Skew Flap Amputation – indications, advantages of conventional
amputation,steps of operation and complications.
9. Post – polio equinus deformity of foot – etiopathology, evaluation & management.
10. Floor reaction Orthosis – indications, principles and advantages.
Paper III
1. Enumerate the types of spinal cord lesions following fracture dislocation of C5-6
vertebrae and discuss clinical features, treatment and prognosis of each type of
lesion in adult. 25 marks.
2. Describe the following in brief 15 marks each:
i) Treatment of fractures of distal end of radius.
ii) Management of fracture of fracture shaft of femur that has become infected
after intramedullary fixation.
iii) Treatment of radial head and neck fractures in children.
iv) Management of Trochnanteric fractures in elderly.
v) Principles of management of Lisfranc injuries of foot.
Paper IV
Massive Transfusion.
Harmon’s approach of Tibia with applied Anatomy.
Strength – Duration Curve.
Biomechanics of hip joint and its clinical applications.
Radionuclide bone scanning.
Tension band principle and its application in treatment of fractures using a wire and
8) Cool Pathology of tuberculous arthritis and correlation with clinical staging.
9) Growth plate - Anatomy and pathological states affecting it.
10) Radiological and biochemical features of renal osteodystrophy and their
June 2005
Paper I
Part A
1) Draw a flow chart of disaster planning at state level. What is the concept of triage?
2) Pathology , clinical features and management of diabetic foot.
3) Nosocomial infection on orthopaedics – common organism and preventive
4) Post operative DVT – Prevention, clinical features and treatment.
5) Post Menopausal Osteoporosis – Prevention and management.
Part B
Crystal Synovitis.
Incoporation of Bone Grafts. How does it differ for cancellous and cortical grafts?
Preparation and precautions required to operate HIV positive patients.
Chemotherapy for osteosarcoma.
How does a neurological claudication differ from vascular claudication? Enumerate
the etiology of the two.
Paper II
Part A
Clinical features and management of slipped capital femoral epiphysis.
Ewing’s Sarcoma.
Pollicisation – Indications and prerequisites.
What are parts of a shoe? Describe the modifications of a CTEV shoe.
What is modified Jone’s transfer for a high radial nerve palsy? How does it differ
from original transfer?
Part B
Pylon prosthesis – Indications, prerequisites and advantages.
Botulin in cerebral palsy patients.
PTB prosthesis – Indications and principles.
Radial club hand.
Salter osteotomy for DDH.
Paper III
1) Describe the biology of fracture healing and the influence of intra medullary rods and
plates in healing. Discuss the role of various modalities in stimulation of
osteogenesis (25 marks)
2) Describe in brief on the following (15 marks each):
i) Treatment of odontoid fracture in adults.
ii) Enumerate the complications of femoral neck fractures in children and discuss the
management in any one of the complications.
iii) Classification and treatment of acromioclavicular dislocation.
iv) Stress, Strain, Modulus of elasticity and strength in relation to metallic implants.
v) Rotator cuff injury in sportsmen.
Paper IV
Part A
1) Trendelenberg test with its anatomical basis and clinical applications
2) Madura foot.
3) Synovial fluid and its analysis in various arthritis
4) Blood supply of head of femur and its clinical significance.
5) Morbid Anatomy , radiological and laboratory features of Multiple Myeloma
Part B
1) Thompsons approach of radius with applied Anatomy .
2) Paralytic Bladder.
3) Methotrexae as a DMARD.
4) Therapeutic ultrasound.
5) Prophylaxis in thrombo-embolic disease.
December 2004
Paper I
1) Describe etiopathogenesis of thoracic outlet syndrome and its management
2) Short notes on:
i) Shock
ii) Haemophiliac arthropathy
iii) Compartment syndrome
iv) Ehler-Danlos syndrome
v) Acute rupture of Achilles Tendon
Paper II
1) Discuss etiology, pathogenesis and management of Perthe’s disease.
2) Write short notes on:
a) Principles of amputation of lower limb in children
b) Dupuytren’s contracture
c) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
d) Nuclear Imaging.
e) F.R.O.
Paper III
1) Classify pelvic fractures and discuss the management.
2) Write short notes on:
a) Fracture Talus
b) Calcaneovalgus Deformity
c) Myositis Ossificans
d) Biomechanics of Hip
e) Habitual Dislocation of Patella
Paper IV
1) Describe calcium metabolism. Discuss the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis and
management of nutritional rickets.
2) Write short notes on:
a) Arches of foot
b) Core decompression
c) Bone graft substitutes
d) Pathology of osteoarthritis
e) Sudeck’s osteodystrophy
June 2004
Paper I
1) Osteoporosis – Definition, Etiology, Clinical features, Investigations, Prevention and
2) Short notes on
i) Surgery for habitual dislocation of patella
ii) Triple arthrodesis for equinus
iii) Shoe modification for valgoid tilt
iv) Fascio-cutaneous skin graft
v) Ideal stump
Paper II
1) Discuss the merits & demerits of operative & non-operative treatment of simple
diaphyseal fracture of tibia.
2) Short notes on
i) Bristow’s procedure
ii) Classification of Distal Radius fracture
iii) Classification of Rotatory knee instability
iv) Management of Pelvic fractures
v) Old metacarpo phalangeal dislocation
Paper III
1) Discuss mechanism & classification of injury around ankle joint. Discuss diagnosis
and treatment.
2) Short notes on
i) Discuss Pathology & management of infected non-union.
ii) Fracture Neck of Femur – Classification and treatment
iii) Compression & Distraction in Orthopaedics
iv) Role of Ligamentotaxis in fractures
v) Tension band wiring principle.
Paper IV
1) Describe bone tumour. Classification, diagnosis and treatment modalities for Multiple
2) Short notes on
i) Bone Cement
ii) Intrinsic Hand
iii) Shoulder Hand Syndrome
iv) Gait Cycle
v) Osteoclast.
December 2003
Paper I
1) Define Gangrene. Describe the aetiological classification & Mx of gas gangerene?
2) Short Notes on :
i) Skin grafting
ii) Madura foot
iii) Mortons metatarsalgia
iv) DVT
v) Ewings tumour
Paper II
1. Management of ankle fractures in children
2. Pathophysiology & presentation of TB spine in children
3. Juvenile Chronic arthritis - DD & investigations
4. Osteochondritis dessicans
5. Congenital amputations of lower limb in children
6. Haemophilia knee
7. Compound palmar ganglia
8. Ulnar claw hand
9. Pes planus
10. Mono ostotoc fibrous dysplasia
Paper III
1) Recent advances in the management of intraarticular fractures of upper end of tibia
2) Short notes on :
i) Rationale of surgical treatment of recurrent dislocation of shoulder
ii) Hangmans fracture
iii) Calcaneum fracture
iv) Orthopaedic complications of high dose steroid
v) Sudeks Osteodystrophy
Paper IV
1) Describe the mechanism of calcium homeostasis by parathyroid hormone and the
skeletal changes that occur as a result of hyperparathyroidism. Discuss the uses and
limitations of lab investigations in the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism
2) Short notes on :
i) BMP
ii) 2nd line of ATT
iii) Acute ankle sprain
iv) Growth plate & its functions
v) Stress, strain & modulus of elasticity in relationship to implants.
December 2002
Paper I
1) Aetiology, Pathology & Mx of Spinal canal stenosis
2) Short notes on :
i) Tension pneumpthorax
ii) Non specific synovitis
iii) Painful arc syndrome
iv) metastatic lesion of bone & tis management
v) Crush Syndrome
Paper II
1) Pathogenesis, Clinical features & management of Caries spine in a child 10 yrs old
2) Short notes on :
i) Intrinsic muscles hand
ii) fibrous dysplasia
iii) Habittual dislocation patella
iv) LASER Therapy
v) Amputations in children
Paper III
1) Management of fracture pelvis and their complications
2) Short notes on :
i) Cerebral diplegia? Line of Management?
ii) Multiple myelpma – Investigations & Management?
iii) Pes Planus –etiology & Management?
iv) Investigations of Pain in Hand?
v) Rationale of surgical Rx for recurrent anterior dislocation shoulder?
Paper IV
1) Blood supply of head of femur in diff age groups?Management of Idiopathic AVN of
2) Short notes on :
i) Osteogenesis imperfecta
ii) Cubitus Varus
iii) Renal Rickets
iv) Sudecks dystrophy
v) Neurogenic Bladder
June 2002
Paper I
1) Describe the various approaches to the spine
2) Short notes on :
i) Recurrent dislocation of patella
ii) Compression plating
iii) Hallux valgus
iv) Volkmans ischaemic contracture
v) Ewings sarcoma
Paper II
1) Describe the management of claw hand
2) Short notes on :
ii) Septic arthritis of hip in a child below 5 years and above 3years
iii) Epiphyseal injuries
iv) Principles of amputation in children
v) Calcaneovalgus foot
Paper III
1.Treatment of ununited fracture neck of femur
2.Treatment of intercondylar fracture of humerus
3.Investigation of collapse of a vertebra
5.Osteogenesis imperfecta
6.Post Polio Residual Paralysis
7.Diagnostic criteria of osteolytic lesion in upper end tibia
8.Pilon fracture
9.Brodies abscess
10. Costo clavicular syndrome
Paper IV
1) Describe the Anatomy of recurrent dislocation shoulder? Discuss Management
2) Short notes on :
i) Ceramics In Orthopaedics
ii) Bone grafts
iii) Hyper parathyroidism
iv) Pigmented villonodular synovitis
v) Pes planus
Paper I
1. OA Knee – pathophysiology. Discuss rationale of surgical management of OA Knee
2. Short notes on :
i) Renal Rickets – Pathophysiology
ii) Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
iii) Hand to Knee gait in Polio
iv) Wallerian Degenration
v) Endotoxic Shock
Paper II
1. Pathomechanics, Clincal features & Management of various deformities in RA –
2. Short notes on :
i) Pseudoarthrosis
ii) Neglected Cong. Talipes Equino varus
iii) Electromyography
iv) Osteochondromatosis
v) Suction socket prosthesis
Paper III
1.Discuss the pathological alterations of femoral neck & head in neglected & ununited
femoral neck fractures and their management?
2. Short notes on :
i) Traumatic paraplegia
ii) Fractures at the upper end of humerus
iii) Intercarpal instability
iv) Two level fracture of shaft of tibia
v) Fractures and dislocation of talus
Paper IV
1. Describe the development of vertebral column.Pathogenesis and management of
potts paraplegia. Discuss the treatment of resistant cases?
2. Short notes on :
i) Biodegradable implants
ii) Rigid flat foot
iii) wrist drop
iv) Compartment Syndrome
v) Symes amputation
Paper I
Paper II
Paper III
Paper IV