Anatomy & Physiology I
Practical II: Connective Tissue & Skeletal System
Connective Tissue
I). Know the types of connective tissue
o Connective Tissue Proper
o Cartilage
o Bone
o Blood
II). Know the elements and of connective tissue and the function of the elements
o cells:
 blasts cells
 fibroblast
 mast cells
 macrophage
o ground substances (matrix)
o fibers
 collagenous
 elastic
 reticular
III). Know all 3 types of cartilage
o Hyaline Cartilage
o Elastic Cartilage
o Fibrocartilage
IV). Know all 3 types of fibers
o collagenous
o elastic
o reticular
V). Be able to identify on a slide the following connective tissues
o Connective Tissue Proper
o Loose Connective Tissue
 Areolar Connective tissue
 Adipose
 Reticular Connective Tissue
o Dense Connective Tissue
 Dense Connective Tissue
 Elastic Connective Tissue
o Cartilage
 Hyaline Cartilage
 Elastic Cartilage
 Fibrocartilage
o Bone
o Blood
If the bone was identified in class it is fair game for the practical. I have limited the
structures that you need, Take your time with the test and learn how to eliminate impossible
answers and arrive at the right answer.
Know the anatomical terms. (i.e. distal, proximal, anterior, etc)
Know what articulates means.
Know what and where the following bones and structures articulate.
Know how to determine an appendicular bone belongs on the right or the left.
Know the osteon histology. There will be a slide. Be abler to identify:
o Haversian’s canal
o lamella
o lacunae
o Know the structure of long bones: (There will be cow bones)
o compact bone
o spongy bone
o yellow bone marrow
o red bone marrow
o periosteum
o Be able to identify all of the following bones and structures:
I. Skull
A. suture joints
i. coronal
ii. sagittal
iii. squamous.
iv. lamdoid
B. cranium
i. fontal bone
o frontal sinuses
o anterior cranial fossa
ii. parietal bone
iii. occipital bone
o foramen magnum
o occipital condyles
o posterior cranial fossa
iv. temporal:
o zygomatic process
o external auditory (acoustic) meatus
o styloid process
o mastoid process
v. sphenoid bone
o sella turcica
o sphenoid sinuses
vi. ethmoid bone
C. facial bones
i. maxillary bones
o infraorbital foreman
o maxillary sinuses
o palatine process
ii. palatine bones
iii. zygomatic bones
o zygomatic arch.
iv. lacrimal bones
v. nasal bones
vi. vomer
vii. mandible
o mandibular ramus
o mandibular condyle
o mandibular notch
o alveolar border
D. orbits
o optic canal
o superior orbital fissure
o inferior orbital fissures
E. sinuses
o Know which bones contain sinuses
F. hyoid bone:
o Know that it is the only bone that does not articulate with
another bone
II. Pectoral Girdle & Arm
A. pectoral girdle
i. clavicle
ii.. scapula
o spine
o acromion
o supraspinous fossae
o infraspinous fossae
o superior border
o medial border
o lateral border
B. humerus
o head of the humerus
o condyle
o epicondyles
o olecranon fossae
C. forearm
o Know what connects the radius & ulna
i. ulna
o olecranon process
ii. radius
D. hand & wrist
i. carpals
ii. metacarpals (1 to 5)
iii. phalanges
o proximal
o distal
o medial
III. Pelvic Girdle and Legs
o Know how to identify which side the leg bones belong on.
A. pelvic cirdle
o Know what the separated pelvis bones are called
o Know how to orientate a separated coxal to determine if it is right or left..
o Know how to identify a male pelvis from a female
o Know what bones fuse to form the acetabulum
i.. ilium
o anterior superior iliac spine
o anterior inferior iliac spine
o iliac crest
ii. ischium
o ischial spine
o obturator foramen
iii. pubis or pubic bone
B. femur
o head of the femur
o greater & lesser trochanter
o lateral & medial condyles
o patellar surface
C. patella
o Know that it is a sesamoid bone
D. Lower leg
o Know what material connects the tibia and fibula
i. tibia
o anterior crest
o medial & lateral condyles
o medial malleolus
ii. fibula
lateral malleolus
E. Foot & Ankle
i. Tarsal Bones (Know the names but be able to identify the calcanaous)
a. calcanous
b. talus
c. navicular
d. cuboid
e. medial cuneiform
f. intermediate cuneiform
g. lateral cuneiform
ii. metatarsals (1 to 5)
iii. phalanges
o proximal phalanx
o medial phalanx
o distal phalanx
IV). Vertebrae
o Be able to identify the vertebrae & the vertebral structures (Both the full
vertebrae column & the individual vertebrae)
o Know how many vertebrae make up each region
o Know how to identify each type of vertebrae.
A. Divisions
o cervical
o thoracic
o lumbar
o sacral
B. Ligaments
o anterior longitudinal ligaments
o posterior longitudinal ligament
C. intervertebral discs
D. intervertebral foramina
E. vertebrae
i. vertebral body
ii. vertebral arch
iii. spinous processes
iv. vertebral foramen
v. transverse processes
F. cervical vertebrae (C1 to C7)
i. atlas
ii. axis
iii. C3-C7
G. thoracic vertebrae (T1 to T12)
H. lumbar vertebrae (L1 to L5)
I. sacrum (S1 to S5)
J. coccyx
V). Thoracic
o Know how many pairs of ribs there are
o Know how many are true ribs and how many are false ribs and why.
A. sternum
o xiphoid process forms the inferior piece.
B. ribs