Models of Personal and Organizational Moral Development Personal Moral Development Organizational Moral Development Physical consequences determine moral behavior. Avoidance of punishment and deference to power typify this stage. Social Darwinism: Fear of extinction and the urgency of financial survival dictate moral conduct. The direct use of force is the acceptable norm. Individual pleasure needs are the primary concern and dictate attitudes toward behavior. The approval of others determines behavior. The good person is one who satisfies family, friends, and associates. Machiavellianism: Organizational gain guides actions. Successfully attaining goals justifies the use of any effective means, including individual manipulation. Cultural Conformity: A tradition of standard operating procedures and caring groups. Peer professional pressure to adhere to social norms dictates right or wrong behavior. Compliance with authority, upholding of the social order, and "doing one's duty" are primary concerns. Allegiance to Authority: Directions from legal authority determine moral standards. Right and wrong are based on the decisions of those with legitimate hierarchical power. Tolerance for rational dissent and acceptance of majority rule become primary ethical concerns. Democratic Participation: Participation in decision making and reliance on majority rule become organizational moral standards. Participative management becomes institutionalized. What is right and good is a matter of individual conscience and responsibly chosen commitments. Morality is based on principled personal conviction. Organizational Integrity: Justice and individual rights are the moral ideals. Balanced judgment among competing interests shapes organizational character which, in turn, determines the rightness or wrongness of behavior. Source: J. A. Petrick, R..A. Wagley, and T. J. Von der Embse, “Structured Ethical Decision Making: Improving the Prospects of Managerial Success in Business,” SAM Advanced Management Journal, Winter 1991, p. 30.