Sample List 1
THEORY (Critical/cultural)
“The structural transformation of the public sphere: An Inquiry into a category of
bourgeois society” - Jurgen Habermas
“After Habermas: New Perspectives on the Public Sphere” - Nick Crossle & John Michael
“Habermas and the Public Sphere” - Craig Calhoun
“Gatekeeping theory” - Pamela Shoemaker &Timothy Vos
“The Phantom Public Sphere” - Bruce Robbins
“Public Opinion” - Walter Lippman
“Imagined Communities” - Benedict Anderson
“On the Public” - Alastair Hannay
“Hidden Debates: Rethinking the relationship between popular culture and the public
sphere” - Joke Hermes
“Hearing Ordinary Voices: Cultural Studies, Vernacular Creativity and Digital
Storytelling” - Jean Burgess
“The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article” - Habermas
"What is Enlightenment?" - Immanuel Kant.
“Why Conversation is not democracy” - Michael Schudson
“Rethinking the Public Sphere” - Fraser
“Habermas, the Public Sphere, and Democracy: A Critical Intervention” - Kellner
“The Networked Public Sphere” - Friedland, Hove & Rojas (2006)
Sample List 2
THEORY (Selective Exposure, Spiral of Silence, Third Person Effect, Hostile Media
Cotton, J. L. (1985). Cognitive dissonance in selective exposure. In D. Zillmann & J.
Bryant (Eds.), Selective exposure to communication (pp. 11-33). Hillsdale:
Festinger, L. A. (1957). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford
University Press
Feldman, L., & Price, V. (2008). Confusion or enlightenment? How exposure to
disagreement moderates the effects of political discussion and media use on
candidate knowledge. Communication Research, 35(1), 61-87
Freedman, J. L. (1965a). Confidence, utility, and selective exposure. Journal of
Personality & Social Psychology, 2(5), 778-780.
Freedman, J. L. (1965b). Preference for dissonant information. Journal of Personality &
Social Psychology, 2(2), 287-289.
Frey, D. (1986). Recent research on selective exposure to information. In L. Berkowitz
(Ed.), Advanced in Experimental Social Psychology (pp. 41-80). New York:
Academic Press.
Garrett, R. K. (2009a). Echo chambers online? Politically motivated selective exposure
among Internet news users. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 14,
Garrett, R. K. (2009b). Politically motivated reinforcement seeking: Reframing the
selective exposure debate. Journal of Communication, 59, 676-699.
Iyengar, S., Hahn, K. S., Krosnick, J. A., & Walker, J. (2008). Selective exposure to
campaign communication: The role of anticipated agreement and issue public
membership. Journal of Politics, 70(1), 186-120.
Iyengar, S. (1990). Shortcuts to political knowledge: The role of selective attention and
accessibility. In J. A. Ferejon & J. H. Kuklinski (Eds.), Information and
democratic processes (pp. 160-185). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Kim, Y. M. (2007). How intrinsic and extrinsic motivations interact in selectivity:
Investigating the moderating effects of situational information processing goals in
issue publics' Web behavior. Communication Research, 34(2), 185-211
Knobloch-Westerwick, S., & Meng, J. (2009). Looking the other way: Selective exposure
to attitudeconsistent and counterattitudinal political information. Communication
Research, 36(3), 426-448.
Mutz, D. C. (2002a). The consequences of cross-cutting networks for political
participation. American Journal of Political Science, 46, 838-855.
Mutz, D. C. (2002b). Cross-cutting networts: Testing democracy theory in practice.
American Political Science Review, 96, 111-126.
Mutz, D. C., & Martin, P. S. (2001). Facilitating communication across lines of political
difference. The American Political Science Review, 95, 97-114.
Sears, D. O., & Freedman, J. L. (1967). Selective exposure to information: A critical
review. Public Opinion Quarterly, 31, 194-213.
Stroud, N. J. (2008). Media use and political predispositions: Revisiting the concept of
selective exposure. Political Behavior, 30, 341-366.
Stroud, N. J. (2010). Polarization and partisan selective exposure. Journal of
Communication, 60(3), 556-576
Wojcieszak, M. E., & Mutz, D. C. (2009). Online groups and political discourse: Do
online discussion spaces facilitate exposure to political disagreement? Journal of
Communication, 59, 40-56
Sample List 3
Theory (Agenda Setting)
Golan, G., & Wanta, W. (2001). Second-level agenda setting in the New Hampshire
primary: A
comparison of coverage in three newspapers and public perceptions of
candidates. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 78, 247-259.
Huckins, K. (1999). Interest group influence on the media agenda: A case study.
Journalism &
Mass Communication Quarterly, 76, 76-86.
Kim, S. H., Scheufele, D. A., & Shanahan, J. (2002). Think about it this way: Attribute
agendasetting function of the press and the public’s evaluation of a local issue.
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 79, 7-25.
Kiousis, S., Bantinmaroudis, P., & Ban, H. (1999). Candidate image attributes:
Experiments on
the substantive dimension of second level agenda setting. Communication
Research, 27, 414-428.
Lopez-Escobar, E., & Llamas, J. P. (1998). Agenda setting and community consensus:
First and
second level effects. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 10, 335349.
McCombs, M. E., Llamas, J. P., Lopez-Escobar, E., & Rey, F. (1997). Candidate images
Spanish elections: Second-level agenda-setting effects. Journalism and Mass
Communication Quarterly, 74, 703–716.
McCombs, M. E., Lopez-Escobar, E., & Llamas, J. P. (2000). Setting the agenda of
attributes in
the 1996 Spanish general election. Journal of Communication, 50, 77-92.
McCombs, M. E., Shaw, D. L., & Weaver, D. (1997). Communication and democracy:
Exploring the intellectual frontiers in agenda-setting theory. Mahwah, NJ:
Scheufele, D. A., (2000). Agenda-setting, priming, framing revisited: Another look at
effects of political communication. Mass Communication & Society, 3, 297316.
Wanta, W., Golan, G., & Lee, C. (2004). Agenda-setting and international news: Media
influence on public perceptions of foreign nations. Journalism & Mass
Communication Quarterly, 81, 2, 364-377.
Wanta, W. (1988). The effects of dominant photographs: An agenda-setting
Journalism Quarterly, 65, 107-111.
Weaver, D., McCombs, M., & Shaw, D. L., (2004). Agenda-setting research: Issues,
attributes, and influences. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political
communication research (pp. 257-282). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Chang, Kuang-Kuo. "Auto Trade Policy and the Press: Auto Elite as a Source of the
Media Agenda." J&MC Quarterly Vol. 76, No. 2, Summer 1999, 312-324
Coleman, Renita and Stephen Banning. "Network TV News' Affective Framing of the
Presidential Candidates: Evidence for a Second-Level Agenda-Setting Effect Through
Visual Framing." J&MC Quarterly Vol. 83, No. 2, Summer 2006, 313-328.
Coleman, Renita and Maxwell McCombs. "The Young and Agenda-less? Exploring
Age-Related Differences in Agenda Setting on the youngest Generation, Baby
Boomers, and the Civic Generation." J&MC Quarterly Vol. 84, No. 3, Autumn 2007,
Entman, Robert M. "Framing Bias: Media in the Distribution of Power." Journal of
Communication, 57 (2007): 163-173.
Lee, Jae Kook. "The Effect of the Internet on Homogeneity of the Media Agenda: A
Test of the Fragmentation Thesis." J&MC Quarterly Vol. 84, No. 4, Winter 2007, 745760.
Lim, Jeongsub. "A Cross-Lagged Analysis of Agenda Setting Among Online News
Media." J&MC Quarterly Vol. 83, No. 2, Summer 2006, 298-312.
Lippmann, Walter. Public Opinion. New York: Macmillian, 1922.
McCombs, Maxwell and Donald Shaw. "The Agenda-Setting Funcation of Mass
Media." Public Opinion Quarterly, 36 (1972), 176-187.
McCombs, Maxwell. Setting the Agenda: The Mass Media and Public Opinion.
Cambridge: Polity Press, 2004.
Reese, Stephen D., Oscar H. Gandy, and August E. Grant (eds.). Framing Public Life.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
Roberts, Marilyn, Wayne Wanta and Tzong-Houng (Dustin) Dzwo. "Agenda-Setting
and Issue Salience Online." Communication Research Vol. 29 (2002): 452-465.
Scheufele, Dietram A. and David Tewksbury. "Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming:
The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models." Journal of Communication 57 (2007):
Song, Yonghoi. "Internet News Media and Issue Development: A case Study on the
Roles of Independent Online News Services as Agenda-Builders for Anti-US Protests
in South Korea." New Media & Society Vol. 9 (1): 71-92.
Soroka, Stuart N. Agenda-Setting Dynamics in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2002.
Takeshita, Toshio. "Agenda-Setting Effects of the Press in a Japanese Local Election."
Studies of Broadcasting Vol. 29 (1993): 193-216.
Takeshita, Toshio and Shunji Mikami. "How Did Mass Media Influence the Voters'
Choice in the 1993 General Election in Japan?: A Study of Agenda Setting." Keio
Communication Review Vol. 17 (1995): 27-41.
Tan, Yue and David H. Weaver. "Agenda-Setting Effects Among the Media, the Public,
and Congress, 1946-2004." J&MC Quarterly Vol. 84, No. 4, Winter 2007, 729-744.
Van Gorp, Baldwin. "The Constructionist Approach to Framing: Bringing Culture
Back In." Journal of Communication Vol. 57 (2007): 60-78.
Wanta, Wayne and Y. Hu. "Time-Lag Differences in the Agenda Setting Process: An
Examination of Five News Media." International Journal of Public Opinion Research
Vol. 6 (1994): 225-240.
Weaver, David H. "Thoughts on Agenda Setting, Framing, and Priming." Journal of
Communication Vol. 57 (2007): 142-147.
Sample List 4
Theory (Framing)
Carragee, K., & Roefs, W. (2004). The neglect of power in recent framing research.
Journal of
communication, 54(2). 214-233.
Coleman, R. & Banning, S. (2006) Network TV news’ affective framing of the
presidential candidates: evidence for a second-level agenda-setting effect
visual framing. Journalism & mass communication quarterly, 83(2). 313- 328.
D’Angelo, P. (2002). News framing as a multiparadigmatic research program: A
response to
Entman. Journal of communication, 52(4). 870-888.
Entman, R. (1993). Framing: toward clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of
communication, 43(4). 51-58.
Gamson, W. (1989). News as framing. American behavioral scientist, 33(2). 157-161.
Graber, D.A. (1984) Processing the news: how people tame the information tide.
New York : Longman.
Iorio, S. & Huxman, S. (1996) Media coverage of political issues and the framing of
concerns. Journal of communication. 46(4). 97-115.
Muthukumaraswamy, S.D. & Johnson, B.W. (2007) A dual mechanism neural
framework for
social understanding. Philosophical psychology, 20(1). 43-63.
Pan, Z. & Kosicki, G. (1993) Framing analysis: An approach to news discourse.
communication, 10. 55-75.
Reese, S., Gandy, O., &Grant, A. (Eds). (2001) Framing public life: Perspectives on
media and
our understanding of the social world. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Scheufele, B. (2004) Framing-effects approach: A theoretical and methodological
European journal of communications 29(4). 401-428.
Scheufele, D. (1999). Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of
communication, 49(1).
Bystrom, D.G., Robertson, T.A., & Banwart, M.A. (2001). Framing the fight: An
analysis of media coverage of female and male candidates in primary races
for governor and U.S. Senate in 2000. American Behavioral Scientist. 44(12),
Kamhawi, R. & Grabe, E. (2008). Engaging the female audience: An evolutionary
perspective on gendered responses to news valence frames. Journal of
Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 52(1), 33-51.
Miller, A. & Ross, S.D. (2004). They are not us: Framing of American Indians
by the Boston Globe. The Howard Journal of Communications, 15, 245259.
Poindexter, P.M., Smith, L. & Heider, D. (2003). Race and ethnicity in local
television news: Framing, story assignments, and source selections. Journal
of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 524-536.
Iyengar, S. (1991). Is anyone responsible?: How television frames political issues.
Chicago: University of Chicago.
Reese, S. D. (2007). The framing project: A bridging model for media research
revisited. Journal of Communication, 57(1), 148-154.
Scheufele, D. A. (2000). Agenda-setting, priming, and framing revisited: Another
look at cognitive effects of political communication Mass Communication &
Society, 3(2&3), 297-316.
Semetko, H. A., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2000). Framing European politics: A content
analysis of press and television news. Journal of Communication, 50(2), 93108.
Price, V., Tewksbury, D., & Powers, E. (1997). Switching trains of thought: The
impact of news frames on readers' cognitive responses. Communication
Research, 24(5), 481-506.