Period 2 Lester 1 Animal Testing Animals are used to develop medical treatments, determine to toxicity of medications, and to check the safety of products that may eventually be used by humans. 95% of animals used in experiments are not protected by the federal Animal Welfare Act, which excludes birds, rats and mice bred for research, and cold-blooded animals such as reptiles and most fish. People have different opinions regarding whether or not it’s necessary for animals to be used for medical research. More than 90% of scientists that the use of animals in research is essential. Prepositions of animal testing say that animal testing has contributed to many lifesaving cures and treatments, such as insulin, and the polio vaccine. There is no alternative method for researching complete living organism. The animal and human bodies are extremely complex. Studying certain cells in a petri dish is useful but it doesn’t provide all processes that occur in the nervous system, endocrine (hormone) system, and immune system. Animals are very similar to humans. Chimpanzees share 99% of their DNA with humans, and mice are 98% genetically similar to humans. Because animals are so similar to humans they are likely to have many of the same conditions and illnesses. Animal research is regulated by the Animal Welfare Act since 1965. As well as providing minimum standards of housing for the animals the Animal Welfare Act also requires regular inspections by veterinarians. Animals often make better research subjects because of their shorter life cycles. Mice usually live 2-3 years so researchers are able to study different treatments over a life span or generations. Research animals are Period 2 Lester 2 cared for by veterinarians, husbandry specialists, and animal health technicians to ensure their well-being and more accurate findings. Opponents of animal testing say that it is cruel and inhumane to experiment of animals. They’re commonly forced feeding, forced inhalation, lack of food and water, prolonged periods of physical restraint, giving the animals burns and other wounds to study the healing process. Alternative methods available to researchers can replace animal testing. Animals are also very different from human beings and they make poor test subjects. The anatomic (body structure), metabolic, and cellular differences between animals and people make animals poor models for human beings. Drugs that pass animal tests are not necessarily safe. In the 1950s the sleeping pill caused 10,000 babies to be born with severe deformities. Animal tests on the arthritis drug Vioxx had a protective effect on the hearts of mice. The drug ended up causing 27,000 heart attacks and cardiac arrests. 95% of animals used in experiments are not covered by the Animal Welfare Act. Rats, mice, fish, and birds are vulnerable to mistreatment since they aren’t covered by the Animal Welfare Act. Animal tests do not accurately predict results in human beings. 94% of drugs that pass animal tests fail in humans trials. Over 100 stroke drugs that were effective on animals, failed on humans, and over 85 HIV vaccines failed on humans after working on non-human primates. Most experiments involving animals are defective, and waste the lives of the animals used. 87% of the studies didn’t randomize the selection of different species of animals. Since most animals are killed during or after testing, the wellbeing of the animals is wasted for poor research. Period 2 Lester 3 In conclusion, many people think animal testing is fair, and many people think it’s a disgrace. I honestly lean towards not testing on animals because I don’t think it’s totally fair. But I also agree with testing on them in a few ways. I think mice and rats should be tested on because there are many of them. I only think it’s fair to test them because they have very short life spans and they don’t have much of an impact on anything. I don’t think dogs, cats, or chimpanzees should be tested on because they’re rather large. Even though chimpanzees share 99% of their DNA with humans it’s still unfair. They may become extinct in the future and we shouldn’t jeopardize the species for animal testing. Animal testing is a part of the human life and how new things come about. People can complain about testing but sometimes it can’t be helped.