Reporting Category 4

Reporting category #4: Biological Processes
Cell Respiration occurs in the mitochondria of plant and animal cells
Mitochondria have own DNA and a double membrane
Formula: Oxygen + Glucose Water + Carbon Dioxide + ATP
There are 3 Steps to Cell Respiration: Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain
ATP is the energy molecule used by all living things.
The Carbon Dioxide produced in Cell Respiration will be returned to the atmosphere as part of the
Carbon Cycle
Cell Respiration breaks down sugars to make ATP=Adenosine Triphosphate
ADP-uncharged molecule, needs to pick up another phosphate
ATP-charged molecule, ready to break bonds between last 2 phosphates to release energy
If no OXYGEN is present then the animal cell will enter Lactic Acid Fermentation to make ATP, this will
only be a short, quick burst of energy. If no OXYGEN is present then the plant cell will enter Alcoholic
Photosynthesis-makes food for plants and this will occur in the chloroplast. Chloroplasts will be
concentrated in the leaves of plants (where photosynthesis occurs) the sugar will be stored as Starch.
The sugar can be stored in leaves and roots of the plant. So just to remind you the main idea of
photosynthesis is not to give animals Oxygen but to make their own food.
Formula: Carbon Dioxide + Water + light energy  GLUCOSE + Oxygen
Plants store sugar as starch, Animals store sugar as glycogen
Photosynthesis has 2 parts:
1. Light dependent cycle uses light energy to break the bonds of water molecules to free up the
Hydrogen and make some ATP that will be used in the Calvin Cycle
2. Calvin Cycle makes glucose using Carbon Dioxide and the hydrogen broken from the water
Plants do not need animals to give them Carbon Dioxide, since they do Cell Respiration plants make
their own Carbon Dioxide
Animals need Plants we cannot make own sugar or oxygen. Since plants make own food they are called
Autotrophs or Producers. Remember Producers are the base of the Energy Pyramid b/c they have most
BIOMASS-living matter
Factors effecting Rate of Photosynthesis: Temp., Amount of Sunlight, water, and nutrients