Additional File 1 Additional File 1 - The use of theories in studies of audit and feedback: Description and stage of theory use N=20 Red: Theory used for intervention conception or design. [an alternative is to italicize] Reference No Paper Theory Theory Location in Category of Theory Use (first type paper author, year) Psychology Bandura, A. Principles Introduction Justification of the work of Behaviour Guiding conception of Modification. New the intervention York: Holt Rinehart & Referred to as Development of the Winston, 1969. “Theoretical intervention Framework of Predictions Behavioral 1 Grady, Social 1997  Cognitive Theory Psychology” Introduction Justification of the work 2 Sommers, Organization Organization Levitt HJ. Applied organizational change in Development Discussion Guiding conception of 1984 industry: structural, Theory the intervention technological and Development of the humanistic approaches. intervention In: March JH, ed. Handbook of Predictions organizations. Chicago: Post hoc discussion Rand, 1965;1152. 3 Bonevsky Diffusion of Diffusion 1999 Innovations 4 Bahranai, Social 2004 Cognitive Models Rogers, E. Diffusion of Methods innovations. New York: Discussion Free Press, 1983 Psychology Bonetti D, et al., Can Methods psychological models Discussion bridge the gap between clinical guidelines and clinicians' behaviour: a randomised controlled trial of an intervention to influence intention to implement evidencebased practice. Br Dent J 2003; 195: 403-407. Put as social cognitive models: undefined. Guiding conception of the intervention Development of the intervention Post hoc discussion Predictions Post hoc discussion No Paper (first author, year) Theory 5 Foy, 2004 Theory of  Planned Behaviour Theory type Reference Location in Category of Theory Use paper Psychology Reference for theory not Methods cited (used TPB). Guiding conception of Discussion the intervention Development of the intervention Post hoc discussion 6 Hayes, 1. Technology 1.Diffusion 2. Org 2002 Diffusion 1. Penland, T. A model Discussion to create 'organizational 3.Psychology readiness' for the Theory successful implementation of total 2. quality management in Organizational hospitals. Int J Qual Readiness Health Care. 1997;9:69model 72. 3. Readiness 2. Rogers, E. Diffusion for Change of Innovations. 4th Ed, Model New York:The Free Press; 1995. Post hoc discussion 3. Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change. Psychother Theory Res Pract. 1982;20:161-173. 7 Tierney, Theory of 1986 Reasoned Action Psychology 1. Fishbein, A Ajzen, I. Discussion Post hoc discussion Belief, attitude, intention, and behaviour: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1968. No Paper (first author, year) Theory Theory type 8 Mold, Diffusion of Diffusion 2008 Innovations Reference Location in Category of Theory Use paper Rogers, E. The Change Introduction agent. In: Rogers, E. (ed). Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed. New York (NY): Simon and Schuster, The Free Press; 1995:335-70. Justification of the work Guiding conception of the intervention Development of the intervention Predictions Note: Rogers was used to support the use of practice facilitation in the intervention but not the A&F component of the intervention. Knowles, M. Methods Andragogy in Action: Applying modern principles of adult learning: San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 1984. Guiding conception of the intervention Development of the intervention 1a. Fishbein,M. A Methods 10 Goff, 1a/b. Theory 1a/b. theory of reasoned 2003 of Reasoned Psychology action: some Action applications and Social 2. Diffusion implications. Nebr Cognitive Symp Motiv 1979;27:65-116. Theory 2. Diffusion 1b. Bandura, A. Social Theory foundation of thought Guiding conception of the intervention Development of the intervention 9 Phillips, Adult 2005 Learning Theory Learning and action: a socialcognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall: 1986. 2. Rogers, EM. Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press: 1983. No Paper (first author, year) Theory Theory type 11 Sinclair, Lawler's Org 1982 organization al theory 12 Cheater, Trans2006 theoretical Model 13 de Almeida Neto, 2000 Reference Location in Category of Theory Use paper Lawler, EE. Control Introduction systems in Discussion organizations: In Dunette MD (ed): Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago: rand McNally, 1976. pp 1247-1291. Psychology Prochaska JO, Discussion Post hoc discussion DiClemente CC, Norcross JC. In search of how people change: applications to addictive behaviours. Am Psychologist. 1992;47: 1102–1114. 1. Bandura, A. Social Introduction 1. Social 1. 2. Cognitive Psychology Foundations of Thought and Action: A social Theory cognitive theory. 2. Stages of Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Change Prentice-Hall; 1986. 2. Prochaska JO, Model 14 Siriwardena Adult 2002  learning theory Justification of the work Guiding conception of the intervention Predictions Post hoc discussion Learning Guiding conception of the intervention Development of the intervention Evaluation Predictions DiClemente CC. Towards a comprehensive model of change. In Miller WR, Heather N, eds. Treating addictive behaviours. New York: Plenum, 1986:3-27. Note: Bandura was used for the health provider component of the intervention and Prochaska & DiClemente was used for the patient component of the intervention. Knowles, MS. Adult Introduction learner: a neglected species. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing, 1990. Justification of the work No Paper (first author, year) Theory Theory type Reference Location in Category of Theory Use paper 1. Ullman & Krasner. A Introduction 15 Lagerlov, 1. 1.2. 2000 Behavioral Psychology psychological approach to abnormal behaviour. Psychology 3. Learning Gap 12: Behaviour 2. SelfModification. New efficacy Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1975: 224-47. 3. Theory of 2. Bandura, A. SelfMedical efficacy. The exercise education of control. New York: Justification of the work Guiding conception of the intervention Development of the intervention Predictions WH Freeman, 1997:3. 3. Coles, C & Holm, HA. Learning in medicine: Towards a theory of medical education. Oslo: Scandinavian University Press, 1993: 189-209. 1. Reason J. Human Introduction Guiding conception of 16 Avery, 1. Human 1. Methods 2010 Error Theory Psychology error: models and the intervention management. British 2a/b. 2a/b. Development of the Medical Journal. Diffusion of Diffusion 2000 Mar;320:768-70. intervention Innovation and Org Evaluation (the two 2a. Rogers E. Diffusion of innovations. New diffusion theories only) York: Free Press1983. Predictions 2b. Greenhalgh T, Note: Human error was Robert G, Macfarlane F, used to design the Bate P, Kyriakidou O. intervention. Diffusion Diffusion of Innovations in Service theory was used as a Organizations: framework for the Systematic Review and qualitative analysis of Recommendations. The interviews asking Milbank Quarterly. participants for their 2004;82:581. impression of the intervention. 17 Scholes, Precede/ 2006 Proceed planning model Psychology Green, L.W., & Kreuter, Methods M.W. Health Promotion Planning.Mayfield Publishing Company. CA:Mayfield;1991. Guiding conception of the intervention Development of the intervention Predictions No Paper (first author, year) Theory 18 Hayes, Social 2001 Learning Theory Theory type Reference Learning Perry, C., Baranowski, Methods T., Parcel, GS. How Discussion individuals, environments, and health behaviour interact: Social Learning Theory. In Health Behaviour and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1990. Location in Category of Theory Use paper Guiding conception of the intervention Development of the intervention Predictions Post hoc discussion Kirkpatrick, DI. Discussion Post hoc discussion 19 Foster, Kirkpatrick's Other Evaluation of training. 2007 Hierarchy of (Evaluation In Training and Levels of ) development handbook Evaluation Edited by: Craig, R, Birrel, I. New York: McGraw-Hill: 1967. 20 Kiefe, social 2001 cognitive models Psychology Conner, M, & Norman, Discussion Post hoc discussion P. The role of cognition in health behaviours. In: Conner M, Norman P, eds. Predicting Health Behaviour. Buckingham, England: Open University Press; 1996. Notes: Introduction (includes introduction, background, literature review, objectives), Discussion (includes conclusion).