1. Urban Water Budget
Discuss the effects of urbanization on humidity, fog, clouds, precipitation (rain and snow), severe
weather. What is the effects of urbanization on runoff and flooding? How do cities increase the risk
of flooding? How do cities impact ground water with the city limits; how do they impact the water
2. Architecture and Urban Planning
Discuss how building design can reduce heating/cooling needs in warm/cold, wet/dry climates. How
do windows, roofs, building materials, orientation to sunlight affect heating/cooling? Describe
native architecture and how it is suited to its climates (acclimatized). How can we combat the urban
heat island through architecture and urban planning?
3. Human Comfort
What is the windchill temperature and how is it measured? Explain the heat index and how it is
measured. Why do we feel more uncomfortable when its hot and humid than when its hot and dry?
Explain how humans lose and gain heat. What is the MET? How is human performance (work,
study) affected by extreme weather? What is a clo unit and what does it measure? How does
altitude affect those unaccustomed to high elevation? Why are downtown areas of cities more
uncomfortable in summer (and winter) than in green areas?
4. Vegetation
Explain how vegetation can be used to cool urban environments. How does vegetation affect
albedo, temperatures, moisture, wind, air pollution, noise, glare? Explain the use of deciduous and
evergreen trees in affecting microclimates. Where is the “effective radiative surface” in wooded
areas? Explain the role of trees in urban energy and water budgets.