URBAN CLIMATOLOGY FINAL STUDY GUIDE 1. Urban Water Budget Discuss the effects of urbanization on humidity, fog, clouds, precipitation (rain and snow), severe weather. What is the effects of urbanization on runoff and flooding? How do cities increase the risk of flooding? How do cities impact ground water with the city limits; how do they impact the water budget? 2. Architecture and Urban Planning Discuss how building design can reduce heating/cooling needs in warm/cold, wet/dry climates. How do windows, roofs, building materials, orientation to sunlight affect heating/cooling? Describe native architecture and how it is suited to its climates (acclimatized). How can we combat the urban heat island through architecture and urban planning? 3. Human Comfort What is the windchill temperature and how is it measured? Explain the heat index and how it is measured. Why do we feel more uncomfortable when its hot and humid than when its hot and dry? Explain how humans lose and gain heat. What is the MET? How is human performance (work, study) affected by extreme weather? What is a clo unit and what does it measure? How does altitude affect those unaccustomed to high elevation? Why are downtown areas of cities more uncomfortable in summer (and winter) than in green areas? 4. Vegetation Explain how vegetation can be used to cool urban environments. How does vegetation affect albedo, temperatures, moisture, wind, air pollution, noise, glare? Explain the use of deciduous and evergreen trees in affecting microclimates. Where is the “effective radiative surface” in wooded areas? Explain the role of trees in urban energy and water budgets.