Heart Diseases and Dysfunctions Common Cardiac Procedures Review assignment BP -blood pressure evaluates the pressure during contractions (diastole), compared to pressure during the rest period (systole).Normal pressure is 120/60 Find the mistakes! Myocardial Infarct -signs are chest pain and shortness of breath, more commonly called a stroke Hypertension –known as the silent killer, low blood pressure. EKG –measures the electroconductivity of the heart. Murmur- heart valves leak resulting in a swishing sound following the heart sounds Angina -chest pain. Arrythmias -abnormal heart beats -tachycardia –fast heart beat, above 200 beats per minute. -bradycardia -slow heat beat -flutter -periodic lack of a heat beat -fibrillation –uncoordinated heartbeat, life threatening Rheumatic fever -valve damage results from a staph infection that travels to the heart. Birthdefects -most common is a hole in the septum of the heart that does not close before birth. t qrs THE HEART p t= ventricular depolarization qrs = atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization. P = atrial repolarization Echocardiogram -study of the heart structure using soundwaves. Angiogram -injection of dye to visualize the portal circulatory system that feeds the heart to identify any blockage. Angioplasty -the use of an inflatable balloon to relieve a blockage. Parts of the Circulatory system: Stent placement –holds vessels open Arteries: carry oxygenated blood to the heart –thick and are elastic. Pacemaker implantation –sets hearts rhythm Veins: Carry unoxygenated blood away from the heart –thin and have valves Bypass Surgery – artificial heart takes over for the heart. Capillaries: One WBC in diameter. The point of exchange Function: Communication between the cells and other parts of the body. Basic Heart Structure: Pericardium: The sack around the heart. The Cardiac Cycle The cardiac cycle describes the flow of blood through the heart. It takes two heart beats for the blood to travel through the heart. Endocardium: outer layer of the heart. Myocardium: the heart muscle. Ectocardium: Inside lining of the heart. Specialized Circulatory Circuits: Coronary: kidney Pulmonary: lungs Hepatic: Liver to heart Renal: Digestive tract to liver Systemic: Body wide. HEART SOUNDS: Lub: The sound of the semilunar valves closing. DuP: The sound of the AV valves closing Blood pours into the left atrium from the superior and inferior vena cava. The bicuspid valve is open and blood fills the left ventricle. The semilunar valve is closed. The blood in the left ventricle puts pressure on the bicuspid valve and it begins to close. A wave of contraction is initiated from the AV node and spreads over the left ventricle squeezing the blood against the bicuspid valve causing the dup sound. The pressure in the ventricle causes the semilunar valve to open and the blood leaves the left ventricle via the pulmonary vein and travels to the lungs where it is oxygenated. Semilunar valve closes when the pressure is greater in the pulmonary vein than in the ventricle to prevent backflow. This is the Lub sound. The bicuspid valve opens when the pressure in the left atrium is greater than the pressure in the left ventricle. This ends the first heart beat and begins the next. Oxygenated blood returns to the heart through the pulmonary arteries and enters the right atrium. The blood pours through the tricuspid valve which is open into the right ventricle. The cycle repeats itself except the blood leaves the heart through the aorta to the body. electroconductivity of the heart AV node = the pacemaker. It is on the anterior wall of the left atrium. AV syncytium=muscle fibers which spread the impulse to the SA node. These fibers are fat and it slows the impulse down so that the atria contract before the ventricles. SA node=distributes the impulse through the SA bundle to the purkinje fibers which stimulate the ventricles. Ventricles are stimulated from the bottom of the heart.