A & P heart review pamphlet with mistakes

Heart Diseases and Dysfunctions
Common Cardiac Procedures
Review assignment
BP -blood pressure evaluates the pressure
during contractions (diastole), compared
to pressure during the rest period
(systole).Normal pressure is 120/60
Find the mistakes!
Myocardial Infarct -signs are chest pain
and shortness of breath, more commonly
called a stroke
Hypertension –known as the silent killer,
low blood pressure.
EKG –measures the electroconductivity of
the heart.
Murmur- heart valves leak resulting in a
swishing sound following the heart sounds
Angina -chest pain.
Arrythmias -abnormal heart beats
-tachycardia –fast heart beat, above 200
beats per minute.
-bradycardia -slow heat beat
-flutter -periodic lack of a heat beat
-fibrillation –uncoordinated heartbeat, life
Rheumatic fever -valve damage results
from a staph infection that travels to the
Birthdefects -most common is a hole in
the septum of the heart that does not
close before birth.
t= ventricular depolarization
qrs = atrial depolarization and ventricular
P = atrial repolarization
Echocardiogram -study of the heart
structure using soundwaves.
Angiogram -injection of dye to visualize
the portal circulatory system that feeds
the heart to identify any blockage.
Angioplasty -the use of an inflatable
balloon to relieve a blockage.
Parts of the Circulatory system:
Stent placement –holds vessels open
Arteries: carry oxygenated blood to the
heart –thick and are elastic.
Pacemaker implantation –sets hearts
Veins: Carry unoxygenated blood away
from the heart –thin and have valves
Bypass Surgery – artificial heart takes over
for the heart.
Capillaries: One WBC in diameter. The
point of exchange
Function: Communication between the
cells and other parts of the body.
Basic Heart Structure:
Pericardium: The sack around the heart.
The Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle describes the flow of
blood through the heart.
It takes two heart beats for the blood to
travel through the heart.
Endocardium: outer layer of the heart.
Myocardium: the heart muscle.
Ectocardium: Inside lining of the heart.
Specialized Circulatory Circuits:
Coronary: kidney
Pulmonary: lungs
Hepatic: Liver to heart
Renal: Digestive tract to liver
Systemic: Body wide.
Lub: The sound of the semilunar valves
DuP: The sound of the AV valves closing
Blood pours into the left atrium from the
superior and inferior vena cava. The
bicuspid valve is open and blood fills the
left ventricle. The semilunar valve is
The blood in the left ventricle puts
pressure on the bicuspid valve and it
begins to close.
A wave of contraction is initiated from the
AV node and spreads over the left
ventricle squeezing the blood against the
bicuspid valve causing the dup sound.
The pressure in the ventricle causes the
semilunar valve to open and the blood
leaves the left ventricle via the pulmonary
vein and travels to the lungs where it is
Semilunar valve closes when the pressure
is greater in the pulmonary vein than in
the ventricle to prevent backflow. This is
the Lub sound. The bicuspid valve opens
when the pressure in the left atrium is
greater than the pressure in the left
This ends the first heart beat and begins
the next.
Oxygenated blood returns to the heart
through the pulmonary arteries and
enters the right atrium.
The blood pours through the tricuspid
valve which is open into the right
The cycle repeats itself except the blood
leaves the heart through the aorta to the
electroconductivity of the heart
AV node = the pacemaker. It is on the
anterior wall of the left atrium.
AV syncytium=muscle fibers which spread
the impulse to the SA node. These fibers
are fat and it slows the impulse down so
that the atria contract before the
SA node=distributes the impulse through
the SA bundle to the purkinje fibers which
stimulate the ventricles. Ventricles are
stimulated from the bottom of the heart.