Natasha Weilert Alex Mudd UL 100 April 22, 2013 Annotated Bibliography How does the pre-workout C4 Extreme affect an athlete during a workout? I picked this topic because I wan intrigued why I feel the way I do when I use C4 during my own workouts. I was interested in how the pre-workout affected my body and thought I would enjoy this project more if the topic was something I actually cared about. Throughout my research I saw positive critics as well as negative ones as well. I found out that the creatine supplementation was established for increasing maximal work output during short, high-intensity exercises (Balsom et al., 1995; Casey and Greenhaff, 2000), and this happens because the creatine has the ability to act as a rapid energy source in muscles, which supports rapid ATP resynthesis, and allows for the continuation of muscular work at a high intensity for a longer period of time (Koh, 2008; Rawson et al., 2001). Since I picked such a precise topic I had to do quite a bit of research to pick through and figure out which ones were the good sources and bad sources. It was very time consuming because of the numerous debates about if pre-workouts do more harm than good in the fitness world. The debates and the different views that I encountered on my topic made researching actually enjoyable. I did have to remember to keep an open mind and not be bias when it came to reading the negative reviews. But I learned so much from both sides of the fence. Buell, Jackie L., et al. "National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: evaluation of dietary supplements for performance nutrition." Journal of Athletic Training 48.1 (2013): 124+. Health Reference Center Academic. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. This journal was written to help athletic trainers understand and promote support health and performance, and to give insight to the federal and sport governing body rules and regulations regarding dietary supplements and banned substances. The journals purpose is to help uneducated athletes gain a better understanding of the safety and concerns associated with choosing which supplements are ok to take. This journal helped me to understand why some supplements are banned. This was very up to date information on my topic and helped me gain knowledge on the positives and negatives of taking supplements. Center, Molly Kimball, R.D., Sports Nutritionist, Ochsner's Elmwood Fitness. "What Are The Benefits And Risks Of Creatine Supplements?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 01 July 2009. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. The context of this article is to answer the question “What are the benefits and risks of creatine supplements?” the purpose of this article is to show that creatine can actually be a really great supplement to help with muscle growth, gaining strength and also muscle recovery. This article is a tertiary source and is an up to date reliable source. This information is current and provided me with lots of information that help in my topic development. The scope of this article was very broad but it still helped in aiding my understanding. "Expert Guide: Pre-Workout Supplements." Muscle & Strength. © Copyright 2005-2013, Muscle & Strength LLC, n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. This article probably was the best source I found while doing my research. It was in laymen’s terms which made it very easy to comprehend. This was a secondary source that was packed full of information. The website however did not show an author. Never the less this source helped me the most when I needed to do my outline and flow chart. All in all, this entire article was extremely helpful in developing my topic. Gutié Rrez-Sancho, Oscar, José Moncada-Jiménez, Walter Salazar-Rojas, and Ellyn Robinson. "The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Biomechanical, Body Composition, and Performance Outcomes in Humans: A Meta-analysis | José Moncada Jiménez Academia.edu." The Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Biomechanical, Body Composition, and Performance Outcomes in Humans: A Meta-analysis | José Moncada Jiménez - Academia.edu. Korea Institute of Sport Science, 2006. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. This article study shows creatine is effective but that there are some variables that require some meat-analysis. The purpose of this study was to conduct such an analysis of creatine supplementation on biochemical, body composition, and physical performance variables. This was a very creditable primary source. The authors have high credentials because they are doing research for the International journal of Applied Sport Science. This article is pretty up to date with only being 7 years old. This was a very useful source because it examined all of the body. Mac, Brian. "Supplements." And Their Effect on the Body. © 1996-2013 BrianMac Sports Coach, 14 Dec. 2012. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. This article was very helpful. The author has long time experience in couching as well as working with athletes. This article is very up to date and helps athletes understand how supplements affect their bodies. The purpose of this article is to give readers helpful information when picking which supplement and telling what that supplement will do to their body without having to try it if they are questionable. This information was very useful and very easy to understand. Maughan, Ron J. Nutrition In Sport. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2000. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 23 Apr. 2013. This book tells of the importance of nutrition in sports. The purpose of this book is to tell the readers that with training, yes it is important to take care of your muscles but you need to make sure that you are feeding your muscles the right food so that your body can use that energy to strengthen your muscle. This book is a secondary source and the authors are very reliable with high credentials. This book is ten years old so it is concerned to be pretty up to date. I found a lot of information but unfortunately it was not very useful for my topic. Mckinnon, Neal B., Mitchell T. Graham, and Peter M. Tiidus. "Effect of Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Damage and Repair following Eccentrically-induced Damage to the Elbow Flexor Muscles." ©Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11 (2012): 653-59. Print. This journal was written to show the findings of an experiment that was done to see if creatine had any effects on preexisting muscle damage. This journal is pretty up to date it is only a couple months old, so it is very current. This journal was not very useful for me in my research because it was only limited to the elbow muscle. I would not use this source if I wrote a paper because I was looking for an all over body effect not just the effect on a damaged elbow muscle. Muzaffar, Hassan. "Creatine Supplementation For Athletic Performance." Predator Nutrition Creatine Supplementation For Athletic Performance Comments. Predator Nutrition Exclusive Sports Supplements, 2 Dec. 2011. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. This article was written because of the increase in the physical demands and pressure of the sport, and how many athletes are now turning and exploring any potential avenues that may give them a competitive edge. The purpose of this article is to examine as well as evaluate the use of oral creatine supplementation in improving athletic performance. This is a very reliable and up to date secondary source. This article was very useful and provided lots of information that is critical in understanding my topic. Nelson, Arnold G., Randy Day, Ellen L. Glickman-Weiss, Maren Hegsted, Joke Kokkonen, and B. Sampson. "Creatine Supplementation Alters the Responce to a Graded Cycle Erometer Test." Eur J Appl Physiol 83 (2000): 89-94. Print. This article was very confusing to me. The article was examining how creatine alters chemicals in your body. This article was very hard to comprehend and follow because it was in very scientific terms which I did not understand. This source is a little out of date but it is a primary source. It was packed full of information but in all reality, this source was not useful what so ever. It only left me confused and questioning what I read. YeanSub Lim, Jon. "United States Sports Academy - "America's Sports University"" Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Body Composition, Strength, and Power of Female Volleyball Players. United States Sports Academy, 2003. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. The purpose of this article is to examine the findings of a study investigated the effect of creatine supplementation on the body composition, muscular strength, and power of 36 female collegiate volleyball players across 10 weeks of training. This is a reliable primary source and the author is very credible. It is unfortunate this article is 10 years old so it is not very up to date but the information is very accurate. This was a very good source because it shows a variety of effects of how creatine affects the body over all. So all in all, this entire source is very useful for my project.