SUPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Environmental implications of anaerobic digestion for manure management in dairy farms in Mexico: a life cycle perspective Pasiano Rivas-Garcíaa, José E. Botello-Álvarezb, Joaquim E. Abel Seabrac, Arnaldo C. da Silva Walterc,d, and Alejandro Estrada-Baltazara*. a Department of Chemical Engineering, Technological Institute of Celaya, Av. Tecnológico y A. García Cubas S/N, C.P. 38010, Celaya, Guanajuato, México. b Department of Biochemical Engineering, Technological Institute of Celaya, Av. Tecnológico y A. García Cubas S/N, C.P. 38010, Celaya, Guanajuato, México. c Faculdade de Engenharia Mecânica, UNICAMP, Rua Mendeleyev 200, Cidade Universitária “Zeferino Vaz”, Campinas, SP, Postal Code 13083-860, Brazil. d Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Laboratory (CTBE), CNPEM/ABTLuS, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, Polo II de Alta Tecnologia, P.O. Box 6170, Campinas, SP, Postal Code 13083-970, Brazil. Supporting Information contains: Table S1. Initial concentration of the digester and at disintegration factors f for the ADM1 at 67.9 g VS/L. Table S2. Requirements of materials and energy for the milk production process. Table S3. LCA results of the three manure management scenarios in dairy farm, using ReCiPe Midpoint (H) method. The results are related by 1 L of milk. Table S4. Main emissions and fossil fuel requirements of the three manure management scenarios in dairy farm. The results are related to g specie/L of milk. * Corresponding Author Tel: +52 01 461 611 7575; fax: +52 01 461 611 7744; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Table S1 Initial concentration of the digester and at disintegration factors f for the ADM1 at 67.9 g VS/L. Parameter Symbol Units Value Composites XC g COD/L 87.13 Total Valerate Sva g COD/L 0.202 Total Butyrate Sbu g COD/L 0.772 Total Propionate Spr g COD/L 1.235 Total Acetate Sac g COD/L 2.110 Inorganic Carbon SIC mol/L 0.102 Inorganic Nitrogen SIN mol/L 0.132 Sugar decomposers Xsu g COD/L 0.339 Amino-acid decomposers Xaa g COD/L 0.339 LCFA decomposers Xfa g COD/L 0.339 Valerate and Butyrate decomposers Xc4 g COD/L 0.339 Propionate decomposers Xpro g COD/L 0.339 Acetate decomposers Xac g COD/L 0.599 Hydrogen decomposers Xh2 g COD/L 0.004 Initial concentration a Disintegration factors f a b Carbohydrate fraction on Xc fCh_Xc -- 0.209 Protein fraction on Xc fPr_Xc -- 0.360 Lipid fraction on Xc fLi_Xc -- 0.020 Inert fraction on Xc fXi_Xc -- 0.410 Calculated based on Rivas-García et al. . b Calculated based on Page et al. [S1]. Table S2 Requirements of materials and energy for the milk production process. Activity Quantity Cattle food production a Corn silage (annual cycle) Without manure as fertilizer N-fertilizer as ammonium sulfate, kg/ha 100 N-fertilizer as urea, kg/há 100 P-fertilizer as P2O5 (single superphosphate), kg/ha 40 With manure as fertilizer N-fertilizer as ammonium sulfate, kg/ha 24.7 N-fertilizer as urea, kg/há 24.7 P-fertilizer as P2O5 (single superphosphate), kg/ha 20.7 Yield, t dry/ha 16.6 Atrazine (500 g/L), L/ha 1.2 Metolachlor (960 g/L), L/ha 1.4 Cypermethrin (200 g/L), L/ha 0.25 Seed, kg/ha 27.7 Diesel, L/ha 73.3 Alfalfa (annual cycle)* Yield, t dry /ha 23.5 N-fertilizer as urea, kg/há 3.7 P-fertilizer as P2O5 (triple superphosphate), kg/ha 180 Trifluralin (480 g/L), L/ha 1.75 Pendimethalin (400 g/L), L/ha 3.5 Seed, kg/ha 9.30 Diesel, L/ha 132.4 Corn (annual cycle) Yield, t dry/ha 6.8 N-fertilizer as ammonium sulfate, kg/ha 120 N-fertilizer as urea, kg/há 120 P-fertilizer as P2O5 (single superphosphate), kg/ha 40 Metolachlor (280 g/L), L/ha 4 Atrazine (900 g/kg), kg/ha 1 Atrazine (370 g/L), L/ha 4 Prometryn (480 g/L), L/ha 1 Malathion (900 g/L), L/ha 5 Carbaryl (5 % w/w), kg/ha 10 Phoxim (5 % w/w), kg/ha 25 Seed, kg/ha 30 Diesel, L/ha 73.3 Feed Transportation b Corn silage transportation, L of diesel/kg of feed 8.31E-4 Alfalfa transportation, L of diesel/kg of feed 1.38E-3 Concentrated food transportation, L of diesel/kg of feed 4.77E-3 Dairy farm Corn silage, kg/L of milk 2.538 Alfalfa, kg/L of milk 0.952 Concentrated food, kg/L of milk 0.634 Diesel, L/L of milk 0.0087 Electricity, kWh/L of milk 0.051 Manure management scenarios Fertilizer scenario (F) b Diesel, L/ L of milk 4.83E-4 Anaerobic digestions scenarios (AD and EAD) Diesel, L/L of milk 2.27E-4 Gasoline, L/ L of milk 4.53E-5 a Information taken from technical reports through the National Institute of Livestock and Forestry Research. b Calculated using the information given by NAFTA. * The alfalfa crop cycle is 5 years, the requirements are divided here for annual base Table S3 LCA results of the three manure management scenarios in dairy farm, using ReCiPe Midpoint (H) method. The results are related by 1 L of milk. Impact category Units Milk production process with different manure management scenarios* F AD EAD Agricultural land occupation m2 a 2.310 2.216 1.883 Climate change kg CO2 eq 0.994 0.872 0.728 Fossil depletion kg oil eq 0.090 0.115 0.098 Terrestrial ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 0.100 0.096 0.082 Human toxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 0.025 0.030 0.025 Freshwater ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 0.022 0.021 0.018 Marine eutrophication kg N eq 0.021 0.018 0.015 Metal depletion kg Fe eq 7.37E-03 0.014 0.012 Terrestrial acidification kg SO2 eq 0.026 0.018 0.011 Ionising radiation kg U235 eq 6.87E-03 0.010 8.63E-03 Photochemical oxidant formation kg NMVOC 0.019 0.013 6.84E-03 Particulate matter formation kg PM10 eq 6.42E-03 4.60E-03 2.70E-03 Urban land occupation m2 a 1.92E-03 2.28E-03 1.94E-03 Marine ecotoxicity kg 1,4-DB eq 2.27E-03 2.28E-03 1.93E-03 Water depletion m3 1.58E-03 2.00E-03 1.70E-03 Freshwater eutrophication kg P eq 2.60E-04 2.52E-04 2.14E-04 Natural land transformation m2 4.63E-05 6.44E-05 5.43E-05 Ozone depletion kg CFC-11 eq 4.41E-08 5.20E-08 4.41E-08 * F = fertilization; AD = anaerobic digestion; EAD = enhanced anaerobic digestion Table S4 Main emissions and fossil fuel requirements of the three manure management scenarios in dairy farm. The results are related to g specie/L of milk. Scenarios* Pollutant flux F AD EAD Airborne emission CO2 265.2 338.9 287.1 NOX 18.3 12.7 6.6 CH4 12.8 12.1 10.3 N2O 1.38 0.78 0.62 NH3 6.17 4.14 2.63 VOC 0.136 0.130 0.111 CO 0.818 0.867 0.744 SOX 0.487 0.736 0.621 PM 0.356 0.430 0.358 NH3 11.7 10.3 8.8 NO3- 43.5 38.3 23.6 PO43- 0.79 0.76 0.65 8.09E-03 7.76E-03 6.59E-03 0.173 0.166 0.141 Oil crude in ground 59.3 61.1 51.7 Gas natural in ground** 23.5 45.5 38.4 Coal hard in ground 5.82 9.9 8.4 Waterborne emission Emission to soil Cypermethrin Atrazine Fossil fuel requirements * F=fertilization; AD=anaerobic digestion; EAD=enhanced anaerobic digestion. **Units of L Supporting information additional references Page DI, Hickey KL, Narula R, Main AL, Grimberg DJ. Modeling anaerobic digestion of dairy manure using the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1 (ADM1). Water Sci. Technol. 2008;58;689–695.