Date Events shaping disaster risk governance before, during and after the volcanic crisis 1961 Montserrat’s first government 1980 Hurricane Preparedness Scheme drawn up 1989 A new constitution sets parameters for the relationship between the UK and Montserrat 1989 Wadge and Isaacs Report published on volcanic risk 1989 Hurricane Hugo leaves 11 dead and over 3,000 homeless 1991 Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA), set up in under the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) 1993 Dependent Territories Regional Secretariat (DTRS) in Barbados 1994 Arrival of new Governor, Frank Savage. A National Disaster Action Plan was drawn up. July 1995 Volcanic activity begins July 1995 Activation of Emergency Operations Centre in Plymouth August 1995 September 1995 October 1995 November 1995 December 1995 First large phreatic eruption and first evacuation of Plymouth (5,000 people) Plymouth reoccupied Large ash fall on Plymouth. Re-evacuation of elderly and inform from south Scientists advise major evacuation of south First small pyroclastic flows than magmatic eruption. Second evacuation of Plymouth (6,000 people). Government of Montserrat (GoM) request for budgetary assistance to FCO. UK government considers voluntary evacuated to UK Population returns to Plymouth Ongoing dome growth threatens Plymouth. GoM accepts budgetary aid conditions from UK Final evacuation of Plymouth. Acting Governor declares state of emergency. Voluntary evacuation scheme to UK introduced Planning Dept issues plan for development in the north Emergency investment package approved for £25m. MVO and all Emergency Operations transferred to Governor’s Office from Chief Minister’s Office Food voucher scheme introduced to replace food relief rations Daytime access to some areas, including Plymouth ODA open Aid Management Office Labour government win UK election; ODA is renamed DfID and separated from the FCO Pyroclastic flows kill 19 people in exclusion zone. New risk map created. January 1996 February to March 1996 April 1996 June 1996 August 1996 September 1996 February 1997 April 1997 May 1997 June 1997 July 1997 August 1997 September 1997 October 1997 November 1997 December 1997 April 1998 May 1998 June 1998 July 1998 September 1998 October 1998 January 1999 March 1999 April 1999 August 1999 2002 2003 2007 2008 2009 Allocation of £6.5m for housing development in the north of the island Salem, Old Towne and Friths evacuated, causing riots. Residents offered Assisted Regional Voluntary Relocation Scheme. Rumours about UK plans for full evacuation escalate. Clare Short famously refers to Montserratians as asking for “golden elephants”. New Governor, Tony Abbott, cuts essential services to the exclusion zone. Urges people to leave Salem area. DfID centralises efforts in London. Businesses relocate to Brades. Inquiry into 25th June deaths starts in London House of Commons Select Committee criticises authorities for ignoring the Wadge Report Food voucher scheme replaced by Monetary Assistance Programme Sustainable Development Plan agreed Guide to evacuation of the central zone released. “Operation Exodus” becomes public knowledge Three-year Country Development Plan agreed: UK promises £75million over 3 years via DfID Overseas Territories Dept set up within FCO International Development Committee Second Report on Montserrat published. DTRS closed down Reoccupation of Salem, Old Towne and Frith begins UK Government and Montserrat Government sign 3 year Country Policy Plan White Paper on Overseas Territories published Assisted passage to UK ends MVO Act becomes law. Disaster Preparedness and Response Act enacted British Overseas Territories Act Dome collapse and island-wide ash fall. UK Government approves £5 million for ash clean up Explosion and evacuation of lower Belham Valley New hazard level system created Lower Belham Valley evacuations Title: A summarised chronology of events and decisions related to disaster risk governance Source: Adapted from Clay et al. (1999); Donovan and Oppenheimer (2013); Sword-Daniels et al. (2013).