Additional file 1

Events shaping disaster risk governance before, during and after the volcanic crisis
Montserrat’s first government
Hurricane Preparedness Scheme drawn up
A new constitution sets parameters for the relationship between the UK and Montserrat
Wadge and Isaacs Report published on volcanic risk
Hurricane Hugo leaves 11 dead and over 3,000 homeless
Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency (CDERA), set up in under the Caribbean Community (CARICOM)
Dependent Territories Regional Secretariat (DTRS) in Barbados
Arrival of new Governor, Frank Savage. A National Disaster Action Plan was drawn up.
July 1995
Volcanic activity begins
July 1995
Activation of Emergency Operations Centre in Plymouth
August 1995
September 1995
October 1995
November 1995
December 1995
First large phreatic eruption and first evacuation of Plymouth (5,000 people)
Plymouth reoccupied
Large ash fall on Plymouth. Re-evacuation of elderly and inform from south
Scientists advise major evacuation of south
First small pyroclastic flows than magmatic eruption. Second evacuation of Plymouth (6,000 people). Government of
Montserrat (GoM) request for budgetary assistance to FCO. UK government considers voluntary evacuated to UK
Population returns to Plymouth
Ongoing dome growth threatens Plymouth. GoM accepts budgetary aid conditions from UK
Final evacuation of Plymouth. Acting Governor declares state of emergency. Voluntary evacuation scheme to UK
Planning Dept issues plan for development in the north
Emergency investment package approved for £25m. MVO and all Emergency Operations transferred to Governor’s
Office from Chief Minister’s Office
Food voucher scheme introduced to replace food relief rations
Daytime access to some areas, including Plymouth
ODA open Aid Management Office
Labour government win UK election; ODA is renamed DfID and separated from the FCO
Pyroclastic flows kill 19 people in exclusion zone. New risk map created.
January 1996
February to March 1996
April 1996
June 1996
August 1996
September 1996
February 1997
April 1997
May 1997
June 1997
July 1997
August 1997
September 1997
October 1997
November 1997
December 1997
April 1998
May 1998
June 1998
July 1998
September 1998
October 1998
January 1999
March 1999
April 1999
August 1999
Allocation of £6.5m for housing development in the north of the island
Salem, Old Towne and Friths evacuated, causing riots. Residents offered Assisted Regional Voluntary Relocation
Scheme. Rumours about UK plans for full evacuation escalate. Clare Short famously refers to Montserratians as asking
for “golden elephants”.
New Governor, Tony Abbott, cuts essential services to the exclusion zone. Urges people to leave Salem area.
DfID centralises efforts in London. Businesses relocate to Brades.
Inquiry into 25th June deaths starts in London
House of Commons Select Committee criticises authorities for ignoring the Wadge Report
Food voucher scheme replaced by Monetary Assistance Programme
Sustainable Development Plan agreed
Guide to evacuation of the central zone released. “Operation Exodus” becomes public knowledge
Three-year Country Development Plan agreed: UK promises £75million over 3 years via DfID
Overseas Territories Dept set up within FCO
International Development Committee Second Report on Montserrat published. DTRS closed down
Reoccupation of Salem, Old Towne and Frith begins
UK Government and Montserrat Government sign 3 year Country Policy Plan
White Paper on Overseas Territories published
Assisted passage to UK ends
MVO Act becomes law. Disaster Preparedness and Response Act enacted
British Overseas Territories Act
Dome collapse and island-wide ash fall. UK Government approves £5 million for ash clean up
Explosion and evacuation of lower Belham Valley
New hazard level system created
Lower Belham Valley evacuations
Title: A summarised chronology of events and decisions related to disaster risk governance
Source: Adapted from Clay et al. (1999); Donovan and Oppenheimer (2013); Sword-Daniels et al. (2013).
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