African horse sickness

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OIE Collaborating Centre Reports
Activities in 2013
Title of Collaborating Centre:
Address of Collaborating Centre:
Zoonoses in Europe
Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut
Federal Research Institute for Animal Health
Headquarters
Südufer 10
17493 Greifswald – Insel Riems
GERMANY
Tel.:
+49(0)38351 71102
Fax:
+49(0)38351 71151
e-mail address:
website:
Name of Director of Institute
(Responsible Official):
[email protected]
www.fli.bund.de
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Thomas C.
Mettenleiter
(President of the FLI)
Name (including Title and
Position) of Head of the
Collaborating Centre (formally
OIE Contact Point):
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Thomas C.
Mettenleiter
Name (including Title and
Position) of writer of this report
(if different from above)
Dr. Jens Schell
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
(President of the FLI)
(Research Coordination)
1
Zoonoses in Europe
Summary of activities specifically related to the mandate of
OIE Collaborating Centres
ToR:
To provide services to the OIE, in particular within the region, in the designated
specialty, in support of the implementation of OIE policies and, where required, seek for
collaboration with OIE Reference Laboratories
ToR:
To identify and maintain existing expertise, in particular within its region
1.
Activities as a centre of research, expertise, standardisation and dissemination of
techniques within the remit of the mandate given by the OIE
Disease control
Epidemiology, surveillance, risk assessment, modelling
Training, capacity building
Zoonoses
Wildlife
Avian diseases
Aquatic animal diseases
Animal welfare
Diagnosis, biotechnology and laboratory
Veterinary medicinal products
Vaccines
Food safety
Feed safety
Other (Name the category:
)
Remark: FLI’s main area of expertise regarding the OIE mandate is “Zoonoses”, however expertise exists also
concerning the other marked areas.
Centre of research: The Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI) is a higher independent Federal authority with the legal
task to perform research on infectious diseases of animals. It houses all national reference laboratories (NRL) for
notifiable infectious diseases of animals in Germany as well as seven OIE reference laboratories (OIE-RL) of which
five concern zoonoses: Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease, Bovine Herpesvirus-1 Infection, Brucellosis,
Chlamydiosis, Glanders, and Rabies. FLI runs a Collaborating Centre of the WHO for rabies. Furthermore it is
designated as a reference centre of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for influenza in animals and
Newcastle disease as well as classical swine fever. FLI is also the national authority to give market authorization
for diagnostic tests for infectious diseases in animals and participates in epidemiological investigations of animal
disease outbreaks.
Zoonooses (Viral Infections)
Title of activity
Scope
Animal Influenza
incl. A/H1N1pdm:
Passive surveillance of influenza virus infections in populations of domestic swine in the
Northwest of Germany revealed cocirculation of at least for stable lineages including a
reassortant between A/H1N1pdm and enzootic porcine influenza viruses (H1pdmN2).
Increasing antigenic diversity among circulating strains was evident (Harder et al., 2013).
Avian Influenza
(AI):
Research on new vaccines targeting the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV)
epizootic in Egypt have been taken up. Work of further characterization of recent
circulating HPAIV H5N1 and H9N2 AIV strains from Egypt is ongoing.
Pathogenesis studies in chickens, pigeons and ferrets with Chinese origin A/H7N9 virus
have been conducted in comparison to low pathogenic European origin H7N7 AIV
indicating that also European H7 LP viruses harbour some potential to infect mammalian
species.
2
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
Zoonoses in Europe
Crimean-CongoHaemorrhagicFever (CCHF)
Recombinant N-Proteins of CCHFV strains coming from European, Asian and African
origin were produced and diagnostic assays for the detection of specific antibodies in
small and large ruminants have been developed and validated using reference sera.
Comparative studies including the in-house ELISA, the commercial Vectorbest CCHF
ELISA, which is based on inactivated full virus antigens, and a commercial
immunofluorescence assay have been performed.
Cattle sera from Macedonia and Albania were analysed and antibody prevalences were
observed. Further CCHFV antibody testing of sera from additional Balkan countries is
foreseen. Moreover, collaboration with partners in Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Cameroon
and DR Congo was initiated. A total of 6000 domestic animal sera were received and
analysis of these sera has started.
In addition to working on the serological test quantitative RT-PCRSs for the detection of
CCHFV-RNA were further optimized.
Japan-Encephalitis:
Immunization of rats and mice with a human vaccine and recombinant glycoprotein (E
protein) for generation of monoclonal antibodies. The antibodies will be selected for
specific binding to JEV with minimal cross reactivity to viruses from the same serogroup
(e.g. West Nile virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus etc.). Development of ELISA based
serological diagnostic systems for differentiation of JEV infection from infections with
other Flaviviruses.
Nipah/Hendravirus
infections:
The qRT-PCR assays for the diagnosis of Henipa virus infections were validated and can
be applied for the analysis of diagnostic samples.
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against functional proteins of the hendra virus
were generated. A second validation study of an indirect in-house antibody ELISA based
on the N-protein is ongoing using a larger set of samples including sera from pigs
experimentally challenged with the Nipah virus.
Orthopoxvirus
infections
Several cases of orthopoxvirus infections in animals were diagnosed and 3 different
cowpox viruses (CPXV) could be isolated and characterized (2 isolates from Alpacas and
1 isolate from a cat).
More than 2300 samples from wild rodents (voles) were screened for orthopoxvirusspecific DNA.
A method for full-length sequencing of CPXV was established using next generation
sequencing. More than 10 different cowpox virus isolates from different animal species
were full-length sequenced.
Parapoxvirus
infections
Several cases of parapox virus infections (Orf) could be confirmed.
Rift-Valley fever :
In 2013 the monitoring studies from a RVFV outbreak in Mauretania 2010 were finished
and showed the involvement especially of small ruminants and camels in RVFV infection
and transmission The studies were supported by a novel Gn based indirect ELISA. In
addition, a set of 45 monoclonal antibodies against structural proteins of RVFV were
generated and characterized. They will be used and provided for several approaches to
enable and facilitate antigen detection assays (competitive ELISAs, indirect
immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry). The previous work demonstrates the
preparedness for monitoring studies in Europe and will alleviate further studies on
vector competence and susceptibility of European lifestock to RVFV in close
collaboration with Dr. Noël Tordo (OIE Reference Centre for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers,
Paris).
Schmallenberg
virus infection
More than 2000 samples of domestic ruminants and wild life were tested for SBVantibodies and virus. Semen samples of bulls were screened for SBV-RNA. Selected SBVstrains were full-length sequenced and phylogenetically typed. PCR-systems for the
diagnosis of SBV especially in semen samples were developed and validated including 2
international ring trials.
More than 15 000 midges were screened for SBV-RNA.
There are members of the Simbu-serogroup which are known to be zoonotic, however,
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
3
Zoonoses in Europe
for SBV it is confirmed that no zoonotic potential exists.
Usutu virus
infection
The molecular biological and serological monitoring in wild birds was continued in close
collaboration with different German bird clinics. Investigation of dead wild birds in close
collaboration with the local state veterinary laboratories and with the Bernhard-NochtInstitute for Tropical Medicine in Hamburg to detect USUV infected birds.
Viral Equine
Encephalitis (VEEV,
WEEV, EEEV):
Establishment of hybridoma cell lines kindly provided by J. Roehrig, CDC, and inclusion of
produced monoclonal antibodies in the ongoing development of new ELISA based
diagnostic systems. Further characterisation of these antibodies and investigation of
their ability to bind to recombinant glycoproteins. Production of recombinant alphaviral
glycoproteins in eucaryontic cells (BHK-21) for the use of glycosylated proteins in
diagnostic sytems
West Nile Fever:
Further development of different diagnostic tools for molecular biological detection
(Pan-Flavi-PCR, microarray) of WNV infections in birds and horses. Different microneutralisation tests as a method to detect the antibody cross reactivities between the
Flavivirus family members were performed. Virological and serological monitoring
studies of wild birds in the last year. Differential diagnostic analysis on request of third
parties.
Rabies
The OIE-RL leads a core group of the Partners for Rabies Prevention (PRP) dedicated to
develop a Blueprint for Bat Rabies Prevention.
The OIE RL participated (i) in the 2013 annual proficiency testing regarding quality
assessment of rabies serological testing for dogs and cats within the frame of the EU pet
travel scheme, (ii) the 2013 inter-laboratory comparison test on FAT, RTCIT,
conventional and RT-PCR, and (iii) an inter-laboratory comparison among the network of
OIE-RL for rabies of the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT) for diagnosis of
rabies.
Zoonooses (Bacterial Infections)
Title of activity
Scope
Bovine
tuberculoses, Para
tuberculoses
Research is focussing on improved and novel strategies for diagnosis and control of
diseases (mycobacterial infections?).
In the frame of the project “Mycobacterium bovis in the wildlife-livestock-human
interface in East and Southern Africa.” (DFG Program: African network building for the
control of neglected zoonoses) mycobacterial from livestock and wildlife (113 from
Tanzania, 44 from Kenya” were sequence-analyzed for species identification samples
Ongoing research project are “Integrated control of neglected zoonoses: improving
human health and animal production through scientific innovation and public
engagement” (EU FP7 – 221948; ICONZ) and “Development of novel diagnostic
strategies for the ante-mortem immunodiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and Johne´s
disease (EMIDA ERA-Net, MYCOBACTDIAGNOSIS)”.
4
Brucelloses
DNA positive control material for PCR and reference sera for brucellosis and B. ovis as
well as B. ovis, B. canis and Yersinia enterocolitica O9 antigens have been provided to
national and international laboratories. The laboratory carried out diagnostic testing for
several OIE Member Countries (Spain, Egypt, Chile). Training courses for serological and
molecular diagnostic techniques were performed for UAE, Pakistan and Egypt.
Chlamydioses
Protocols and technical expertise of the RL's standard real-time PCR assays and DNA
microarray tests were provided to laboratories in the Netherlands, Poland, Croatia,
Ukraine and France. Researchers from the Netherlands, Poland and Ukraine were
received in the laboratory for short technical visits. Chromosomal DNA aliquots from
reference strains of Chlamydia spp. were shipped to labs in 8 different OIE member
states (Ireland, Spain, France, the Netherlands, Ukraine, Poland and Australia). A total of
889 diagnostic tests on avian chlamydiosis) and 443 on ovine chlamydiosis were
conducted to examine field samples sent in from other OIE countries.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
Zoonoses in Europe
EHEC
Ongoing research project “Occurrence of EHEC O104:H4 genes in cattle herds from
Germany and Spain” (EU ANTIGONE).
Protocol and technical expertise of the reference laboratory standard STEC colony
hybridization assay were provided to the laboratories in Spain (SaBio-IREC (CSIC-UCLMJCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain; VISAVET Health Surveillance Centre, Universidad
Complutense, Madrid, Spain).
Glanders
An OIE-Twinning project with NRCE, Hisar, India was started. Training courses for
serological and molecular diagnostic techniques were performed for Iraq. B. mallei positive and negative control serum, DNA and LPS from B. mallei and B. pseudomallei
strains was prepared and provided to other laboratories.
Tularemia
Various nutrient media for culture of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica were compared with
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in a study with samples from wild animals (also
published).
A serological investigations of wild boars (Sus scrofa) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as
indicator animals for circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany was performed and
published.
German Francisella tularensis isolates from European brown hares (Lepus europaeus)
were typed using genetic and phenotypic markers in a cooperation with Sweden to
elucidate their phylogeographic relation (also published).
PCR assays were provided to Federal Laboratories and a ringtest was organized for the
detection of F. tularensis using PCR assays with participants from Germany and Austria.
Zoonooses (Parasite Infections)
Title of activity
Scope
Dourine
Dourine control sera were provided to the Laboratoire Régional d´Analyses et de
Recherches, Casablanca Morocco,
40 horse sera from Kyrgyzstan were examined for dourine antibodies
Echinococcosis
A mathematical model for analysing the spatial and temporal distribution of
Echinococcus multilocularis was further developed. The spread and behaviour of the
raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) as a new definitive host of Echinococcus
multilocularis in eastern and central Europe was studied. A total of 33 foxes from
Brandenburg, Germany, were tested for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis by
the Intestinal Scraping Technique. The parasite was detected in 15 samples. Molecular
typing techniques (EmsB microsatellite analysis; detection of the mitochondrial markers
cox1, nad1 and atp6) were established to study the spatial and temporal epidemiology
of the infection of foxes with the parasite.
A PhD student from Sudan was trained in study design, sampling and echinococcosis
diagnosis. 33 out of 143 canine fecal samples from different regions in Sudan contained
taeniid eggs, which were molecularly typed by multiplex PCR (Boubaker et. al., 2013).
535 sheep, 291 goats, 735 cattle and 430 camels were examined for hydatid cysts at
slaughterhouses. While the prevalence was low in cattle (1.4%), sheep (0.3%) and goats
(0.3%), a substantial proportion of camels was found infected (25.3%).
Zoonooses (Transmissible Spongiforme Encephalopathies, Prions)
Title of activity
Scope
Prions –TSE:
Pathogenesis studies and risk assessment studies focus more on atypical BSE. Close
collaborations with other NRLs and with research institutes were continued. BSE or
scrapie positive samples and reference materials (e.g. fresh brainstem material or
paraffin-embedded fixed tissue) were supplied to cooperating partners.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
5
Zoonoses in Europe
ToR:
To propose or develop methods and procedures that facilitate harmonisation of
international standards and guidelines applicable to the designated specialty
2.
Proposal or development of any procedure that will facilitate harmonisation of
international regulations applicable to the surveillance and control of animal diseases,
food safety or animal welfare
6
Proposal title
Scope/Content
Applicable area
Harmonisation of
diagnostic
techniques on
Echinococcosis
This study was done in the
framework of APHAEA (harmonised
Approaches in monitoring wildlife
Population Health, And Ecology
and Abundance) in collaboration
with IREC, Spain, IZSTO, Italy,
VetAgroSup, France, SVA Sweden,
DTU, Denmark, FIWI at the
University of Bern, Switzerland, the
Artemis Research Institute, the
Netherlands, IZSLER, Italy, and the
University of Turin, Italy.
Surveillance and control of animal diseases
Real time PCR
subtyping of
swine influenza
viruses
In order to cope with the increasing
diversity of swine influenza viruses
multiplex RT-qPCRs were
developed to diagnose four
hemagglutinin and two
neuraminidase lineages including
A/H1N1pdm in swine samples.
Surveillance and control of animal diseases
“Blueprint for Fox
Rabies
Prevention”
Completion and updating of the
“Blueprint for Fox Rabies
Prevention”
(http://www.rabiesblueprint.com/)
Surveillance and control of animal diseases
Reliable
detection
method for
Schmalenberg
virus RNA in
semen
Development and validation of
PCR-system for the reliable
detection of SBV-RNA in semen
samples
Surveillance and control of animal diseases
In vitro
production
procedure of
dourine antigen
for CFT
The OIE-recommended method of
production of Trypanosoma
equiperdum whole cell antigen for
diagnosis of dourine requires the
infection of rats followed by
harvest and purification the
pathogen from blood. In vitro
propagation of T. equiperdum
saves animal lives and is expected
to generate better standardized
antigen for CFT and the
opportunity to detect partial
antigens of higher specificity to
differentiate T. equiperdum from
T. evansi.
Surveillance and control of animal diseases
Food safety
Animal welfare
Food safety
Animal welfare
Food safety
Animal welfare
Food safety
Animal welfare
Food safety
Animal welfare
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
Zoonoses in Europe
ToR:
To establish and maintain a network with other OIE Collaborating Centres designated
for the same specialty, and should the need arise, with Collaborating Centres in other
disciplines
ToR:
To carry out and/or coordinate scientific and technical studies in collaboration with
other centres, laboratories or organisations
3.
Did your Collaborating Centre maintain a network with other OIE Collaborating Centres
(CC), Reference Laboratories (RL), or organisations designated for the same specialty, to
coordinate scientific and technical studies?
Yes
No
Name of OIE CC/RL/other
organisation(s)
Location
National Veterinary Services
Laboratories USDA, APHIS,
Veterinary Services
Ames,
USA
OIE-RL for Highly pathogenic
avian influenza and low
pathogenic avian influenza
(poultry)
Region of
networking Centre
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Avian Influenza: Organization and
evaluation of an OFFLU ring trial on
molecular detection and
characterization of avian influenza
viruses
Viral Equine Encephalitis: Development
and validation of ELISAs based on
recombinant protein as well as on full
virus antigens
OIE-RL for Viral Equine
Encephalitis
Centers for Disease Control
& Prevention (CDC)
Purpose
Atlanta ,
USA
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Rabies research, diagnostics,
surveillance
Canada
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Nepean,
Canada
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Prions – TSE:
Diagnostic and Risk Assessment of BSE
and atypical BSE, provision of ring trial
samples to the Canadian NRL to
support their quality control system. on
cattle experimentally challenged with
atypical BSE
Rabies research, diagnostics,
surveillance
WHO CC for Reference and
Research on Rabies
OIE RL for Rabies
Lethbridge Laboratory
National Centre for Animal
Disease (NCAD)
Canadian Food Inspection
Agency
OIE RL Bovine spongiform
encephalopathy
Ottawa Laboratory
Fallowfield (OLF), Canadian
Food Inspection Agency
WHO CC for Control,
Pathogenesis and Epidemiology
of Rabies in Carnivores
OIE RL for Rabies
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
7
Zoonoses in Europe
Name of OIE CC/RL/other
organisation(s)
ANSES - French Agency for
Food, Environmental and
Occupational Health &
Safety
Location
Region of
networking Centre
France
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Paris
France
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Mittelhä
usern,
Switzerla
nd
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
London,
United
Kingdom
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Berlin,
Germany
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Japan
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
EU-RL for equine diseases
EU-RL for brucellosis.
EU-RL for chlamydiosis
WHO CC for Management on
Zoonoses Control
OIE RL for Rabies
WHO Collaborating Centre
for “Arboviruses and Viral
Haemorrhagic Fevers” at
UPSA, Virology, Institute
Pasteur,
Institute of Virology and
Immunology (IVI)
WHO Collaborating Centre
for Reference and Research
on Influenza
National Institute for Medical
Research - Mill Hill
Rober Koch Institut
Japanese National Institute
of Animal Health
8
Purpose
West Nile virus:
Successful participation in the
proficiency test on WNV molecular
diagnostics and serology organized by
the EU-RL
Brucellosis:
Successful participation in the ring trial
for production of B. ovis and porcine
reference serum organized by the EURL
Chlamydiosis:
Successful participation in the ring trial
for production of B. ovis and porcine
reference serum organized by the EURL
Schmallenberg virus:
Prevention and control of SBV (SBVnetwork)
Rabies research, diagnostics,
surveillance
Rift-Valley-Fever virus:
Studies on vector competence and
susceptibility of European lifestock to
RVFV
Differential diagnostics for animal
diseases
West Nile virus:
Exchange of information on prevention
and control of WNF infections.
avian Influenza: Receipt of A/H7N9
China 2013.
Brucellosis and Glanders:
Successful participation in the ring trial
to detect highly pathogenic agents
including B.mallei/pseudomallei and
rucella spp. (organized within the EUproject QUANDHIP; EAHC Grant
Agreement No 2010 2102).
Prions – TSE:
Comparative study on diagnostic of
atypical BSE on cattle experimentally
challenged with atypical BSE
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
Zoonoses in Europe
Name of OIE CC/RL/other
organisation(s)
Location
Region of
networking Centre
United
Kingdom
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Reference Laboratory for
Ovine Chlamydiosis,
Institute of Veterinary
Pathology, University of
Zurich
Zurich,
Switzerla
nd
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
CODA-CERVA (Veterinary
and Agrochemical Research
Centre)
Belgium
Central Veterinary Institute
of Wageningen UR (CVI)
The
Netherla
nds
Onderstepoort Veterinary
Institute
Onderste
poort,
South
Africa
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Africa
Americas
Asia and Pacific
Europe
Middle East
Animal Health and
Veterinary Laboratories
Agency (AHVLA)
EU Reference laboratory for
Transmissible Spongiform
Encephalopathies
WHO CC for the
Characterization of Rabies &
Rabies-related Viruses l
OIE RL for Rabies
OIE RL for Rabies
4.
Purpose
Brucellosis and Glanders:
Successful participation in the
international ring trial VETQAS CFT
(organized by VLA Weybridge),
Prions – TSE:
discussions related to TSE diagnostics
batch testing procedure of all BSE rapid
tests: FLI is responsibel for the BioRad
TeSeE test
Schmalenberg virus:
Prevention and control of SBV (SBVnetwork)
Rabies research, diagnostics,
surveillance
Epidemiology of chlamydia infections
in poultry: current activities are
focused on aetiology, epidemiology and
genetic diversity of the newly defined
species of Chlamydia avium and
Chlamydia gallinacea.
Schmalenberg virus:
Prevention and control of SBV (SBVnetwork)
Schmalenberg virus:
Prevention and control of SBV (SBVnetwork)
Rabies research, diagnostics,
surveillance
Did your Collaborating Centre maintain a network with other OIE Collaborating Centres,
Reference laboratories, or organisations in other disciplines, to coordinate scientific and
technical studies?
Yes
No
Remark: please see question 3
ToR:
To place expert consultants at the disposal of the OIE.
5.
Did your Collaborating Centre place expert consultants at the disposal of the OIE?
Yes
Name of expert
No
Kind of consultancy
Subject
Prof. Franz Conraths
Consultation with scientists
from Sudan
Study design to assess the epidemiological
situation regarding Echinococcus granulosus s.s.
Prof. Franz Conraths
Consultation with the
European Food Safety Agency
Risk assessment of the epidemiological situation
regarding Echinococcus multilocularis in Europe.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
9
Zoonoses in Europe
Name of expert
Kind of consultancy
Subject
Prof. Heinrich
Neubauer
Contribution to the Terrestrial
Manual Diagnostic Tests and
Vaccines for Terrestrial
Animals
Contribution to the brucellosis chapters
Prof. Heinrich
Neubauer
Contribution to the Terrestrial
Manual Diagnostic Tests and
Vaccines for Terrestrial
Animals
Contribution to the glanders chapter
Prof. Heinrich
Neubauer
OIE ad hoc group meeting:
Contribution to the Terrestrial
Animal Code
Contribution to the glanders chapter
Prof. Heinrich
Neubauer,
Dr. Mandy Elschner
Visit at the Candidate
Laboratory NRCE Hisar, India
OIE-Twinning project Glanders
Prof. Timm Harder
Consultation with Ministry of
Agriculture, North Korea
Avian influenza: control and prevention
Prof. Thomas
Mettenleiter
OIE Scientific Commission for
Animal Diseases
Strategies and measures for animal disease
prevention and control
PD Dr. Martin Beer
OIE ad hoc group meeting
Schmallenberg virus: Invited expert (OIE, Paris
10.10.2013)
Prof. Martin Groschup
Consultancy of FAO/IAEA
Division of Nuclear
Techniques in Food and
Agriculture
Discussion on novel technologies for monitoring
animal and zoonotic disease vectors, as well as
detection of the pathogens in vectors, and vector
host interactions.
Dr. Thomas Müller
Partners for Rabies
Prevention - Expert meeting
Rabies virus: Invited expert (PRP, Wolfsberg,
Toronto)
Dr. Thomas Müller
EU – NRL for Rabies meeting
Rabies virus: Invited expert (EU, Athens)
Dr. Thomas Müller
World Rabies Day - Expert
Meeting
Rabies virus: Invited expert (Annecy)
Dr. Thomas Müller
Contribution to the Terrestrial
Manual Diagnostic Tests and
Vaccines for Terrestrial
Animals
Contribution to the rabies chapter
ToR:
To provide, within the designated specialty, scientific and technical training to personnel
from OIE Member Countries
6.
Did your Collaborating Centre provide scientific and technical training, within the remit of
the mandate given by the OIE, to personnel from OIE Member Countries?
Yes
No
If the answer is yes, please provide the total number of trained persons for each of the following
categories:
10
a)
Technical visits: ................................................................ 6
b)
Seminars: .........................................................................
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
Zoonoses in Europe
c)
Hands-on training courses: .............................................. 25
d)
Internships (>1 month): ................................................... 18
Type of technical
training provided
(a, b, c or d)
Content
Country of origin of the
expert(s) provided with
training
No. participants from
the corresponding
country
India
2
Mongolia
1
Mauretania
2
Botswana
1
Netherlands,
Poland
Ukraine
2
1
1
Iraq
3
Egypt
Sierra Leone
Kameron
DR Congo
Mauretania
2
2
1
2
1
a
Technical visit from Glanders OIETwinning Candidate Laboratory
NRCE, Hisar
a
Bovine tuberculosis control in
Germany.
a
Crimean-Congo-HaemorrhagicFever: on site visit at the
Mauritanian national reference
laboratory (CNERV, Nouakchott)
a
Provided training on rabies
diagnostic test methods
c
Chlamydiosis: Technical training
and consultations on diagnostic
methods (i.p. cell culture
techniques and molecular
diagnostic methods)
c
Training on microbiological,
serological and molecular
diagnostic of Glanders
c
Crimean-Congo-HaemorrhagicFever: diagnostic of CCHFV by
quantitative RT-PCR and detection
of CCHFV-specific antibodies in
cattle sera by ELISA (3 training
courses with varying participants)
c
Provided training on Schmallenberg
virus diagnostics
China
2
c+d
Training on molecular diagnostic of
Brucellosis
UAE
2
c+d
Training on molecular typing of
Brucellosis
UAE
3
c+d
Training on microbiological,
serological and molecular
diagnostic of Brucellosis
Pakistan
2
c+d
Microbiological, serological and
molecular diagnostic of Brucellosis
Egypt
3
d
Study design, sampling and
Echinococcosis diagnosis
Sudan
1
d
Doctoral thesis on microbiological,
serological and molecular
diagnostic of Brucellosis in Egypt
Egypt
1
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
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Zoonoses in Europe
Type of technical
training provided
(a, b, c or d)
Content
Country of origin of the
expert(s) provided with
training
No. participants from
the corresponding
country
d
Microbiological, serological and
molecular diagnostic of Brucellosis
Turkey
1
d
Provided training on avian
influenza virus diagnostics (classical
and molecular techniques)
Botswana
1
d
Master Thesis at the Berlin School
of Public Health at Charité. Training
in the of PCR screening of European
bat samples for a variety of viruses,
including paramyxoviruses.
Bangladesh
1
d
Training program concerning
immunohistochemical techniques
in the detection of pathological
prion protein (TSE-diseases).
Brasília
1
ToR:
To organise and participate in scientific meetings and other activities on behalf of the
OIE
7.
Did your Collaborating Centre organise or participate in the organisation of scientific
meetings on behalf of the OIE?
Yes
No
ToR:
To collect, process, analyse, publish and disseminate data and information relevant to
the designated specialty
8.
Publication and dissemination of any information within the remit of the mandate given by
the OIE that may be useful to Member Countries of the OIE
(Indicate in the appropriate box the number by category)
a)
Articles published in peer-reviewed journals: ................. 350
Selected publications of the FLI:
Viral diseases:
Avian and Animal Influenza
Harder, T.C., E. grosse Beilage, E. Lange, C. Meiners, S. Döhring, S. Pesch, T. Noé, C. Grund, M. Beer, and E. Starick. 2013.
Expanded co-circulation of stable subtypes, emerging lineages and new sporadic reassortants of porcine influenza viruses in
swine populations in Northwest Germany. J Virol 87:10460-10476.
Zhao, N., E. Lange, S. Kubald, C. Grund, M. Beer, and T.C. Harder. 2013. Distinction of subtype-specific antibodies against
European porcine influenza viruses by indirect ELISA based on recombinant hemagglutinin protein fragment-1. Virology J
10:246.
Crimean-Congo-Haemorrhagic-Fever (CCHF):
Mertens, M., K. Schmidt, A. Ozkul, and M.H. Groschup. 2013. The impact of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus on
public health. Antiviral Res 98:248-260.
Hanta disease:
Klempa, B., T. Avsic-Zupanc, J. Clement, T.K. Dzagurova, H. Henttonen, P. Heyman, F. Jakab, D.H. Krüger, P. Maes, A.
Papa, E.A. Tkachenko, R.G. Ulrich, O. Vapalahti, and A. Vaheri. 2013. Complex evolution and epidemiology of DobravaBelgrade hantavirus: definition of genotypes and their characteristics. Arch Virol 158:521-529.
Faber, M., T. Wollny, M. Schlegel, K.M. Wanka, J. Thiel, C. Frank, D. Rimek, R.G. Ulrich, and K. Stark. 2013. Puumala Virus
Outbreak in Western Thuringia, Germany, 2010: Epidemiology and Strain Identification. Zoon Publ Health 60:549-554.
12
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
Zoonoses in Europe
Rift-Valley fever :
Jäckel, S., M. Eiden, M. Dauber, A. Balkema-Buschmann, A. Brun, and M.H. Groschup. 2013. Generation and application of
monoclonal antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid protein NP and glycoproteins Gn and Gc. Arch Virol [Epub
ahead of print; doi:10.1007/s00705-013-1867-4]
Jäckel, S., M. Eiden, A. Balkema-Buschmann, M. Ziller, P. Jansen van Vuren, J.T. Paweska, and M.H. Groschup. 2013. A
novel indirect ELISA based on glycoprotein Gn for the detection of IgG antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus in small
ruminants. Res Vet Sci 95:725-730.
Schmallenberg disease
Wernike, K., M. Kohn, F.J. Conraths, D. Werner, D. Kameke, S. Hechinger, H. Kampen, and M. Beer. 2013. Transmission of
Schmallenberg Virus during Winter. Emerg Infect Dis 19:1701-1703.
Hoffmann, B., C. Schulz, and M. Beer. 2013. First detection of Schmallenberg virus RNA in bovine semen, Germany, 2012.
Vet Microbiol 167:289-295.
Usutu disease
Garigliany, M.-M., D. Marlier, K. Tenner-Racz, M. Eiden, D. Cassart, R. Gandar, M. Beer, J. Schmidt-Chanasit, and D.
Desmecht. 2013. Detection of Usutu virus in a bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula) and a great spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos
major) in north-west Europe. Vet J [Epub ahead of print; doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.10.017]
West Nile Fever:
Ziegler, U., J. Angenvoort, D. Fischer, C. Fast, M. Eiden, A.V. Rodriguez, S. Revilla-Fernández, N. Nowotny, J. García de la
Fuente, M. Lierz, and M.H. Groschup. 2013. Pathogenesis of West Nile virus lineage 1 and 2 in experimentally infected large
falcons. Vet Microbiol 161:263-273.
Ziegler, U., A. Skrypnyk, M. Keller, C. Staubach, M. Bezymennyi, A.M. Damiani, N. Osterrieder, and M.H. Groschup. 2013.
West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Horses of Ukraine. Viruses 5:2469-2482.
Rabies:
Kgaladi, J., N. Wright, J. Coertse, W. Markotter, D. Marston, A.R. Fooks, C.M. Freuling, T.F. Müller, C.T. Sabeta, and L.H.
Nel. 2013. Diversity and Epidemiology of Mokola Virus. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2511.
Freuling, C.M., K. Hampson, T. Selhorst, R. Schröder, F.X. Meslin, T.C. Mettenleiter, and T. Müller. 2013. The elimination of
fox rabies from Europe: determinants of success and lessons for the future. Phil Trans R Soc B 368:20120142.
Bacterial diseases:
Bovine tuberculosis, Paratuberculosis
Mwakapuja, R.S., Z.E. Makondo, J. Malakalinga, W. Bryssinckx, R.H. Mdegela, I. Moser, R.R. Kazwala, and M. Tanner.
2013. Prevalence and significant geospatial clusters of bovine tuberculosis infection at livestock-wildlife interface ecosystem
in Eastern Tanzania. Trop Anim Health Prod 45:1223-1230.
Mwakapuja, R.S., Z.E. Makondo, J. Malakalinga, I. Moser, R.R. Kazwala, and M. Tanner. 2013. Molecular characterization
of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from pastoral livestock at Mikumi-Selous ecosystem in the eastern Tanzania. Tuberculosis
93:668-674.
Brucellosis
Ali, S., Q. Ali, F. Melzer, I. Khan, S. Akhter, H. Neubauer, and S.M. Jamal. 2013. Isolation and identification of bovine
Brucella isolates from Pakistan by biochemical tests and PCR. Trop Anim Health Prod [Epub ahead of print;
doi:10.1007/s1250-013-0448-6]
Ali, S., Q. Ali, H. Neubauer, F. Melzer, M. Elschner, I. Khan, E.N. Abatih, N. Ullah, M. Irfan, and S. Akhter. 2013.
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Brucellosis as a Professional Hazard in Pakistan. Foodborne Pathog Dis
10:500-505.
Karger, A., F. Melzer, M. Timke, B. Bettin, M. Kostrzewa, K. Nöckler, A. Hohmann, H. Tomaso, H. Neubauer, and S. Al
Dahouk. 2013. Interlaboratory Comparison of Intact-Cell Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass
Spectrometry Results for Identification and Differentiation of Brucella spp. J Clin Microbiol 51:3123-3126.
Chlamydiosis
Forsbach-Birk, V., C. Foddis, U. Simnacher, M. Wilkat, D. Longbottom, G. Walder, C. Benesch, M. Ganter, K. Sachse, and A.
Essig. 2013. Profiling Antibody Responses to Infections by Chlamydia abortus Enables Identification of Potential Virulence
Factors and Candidates for Serodiagnosis. PLoS one 8:e80310.
Müller, U., K. Sachse, K. Kemmerling, C. Rietz, and H. Sauerwein. 2013. Identification of certain management parctices and
health data associated with Chlamydia infection status in German dairy herds. Vet J 197:905-907.
Glanders:
Khan, I., S. Ali, M. Gwida, M.C. Elschner, M. Ijaz, A.A. Anjum, and H. Neubauer. 2013. Prevalence of Burkholderia mallei in
Equids of Remount Depot, Sargodha, Pakistan. Pakistan J Zool 45:1751-1756.
Paratuberculosis:
Elze, J., E. Liebler-Tenorio, M. Ziller, and H. Köhler. 2013. Comparison of prevalence estimation of Mycobacterium avium
subsp. paratuberculosis infection by sampling slaughtered cattle with macroscopic lesions vs. systematic sampling.
Epidemiol Infect 141:1536-1544.
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
13
Zoonoses in Europe
Kasnitz, N., H. Köhler, M. Weigoldt, G.-F. Gerlach, and P. Möbius. 2013. Stability of genotyping target sequences of
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis upon cultivation on different media, in vitro- and in vivo passage, and natural
infection. Vet Microbiol 167:573-583.
Q-fever
Marenzoni, M.L., V. Stefanetti, P. Papa, P. Casagrande Proietti, A. Bietta, M. Coletti, F. Passamonti, and K. Henning. 2013.
Is the horse a reservoir or an indicator of Coxiella burnetti infection? Systematic review and biomolecular investigation. Vet
Microbiol 167:662-669.
Henning, A.-K., M.H. Groschup, T.C. Mettenleiter, and A. Karger. 2013. Analysis of the bovine plasma proteome by matrixassisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Vet J [Epub ahead of print;
doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.10.029]
Georgiev, M., A. Afonso, H. Neubauer, H. Needham, R. Thiéry, A. Rodolakis, H.J. Roest, K.D. Stärk, J.A. Stegeman, P.
Vellema, W. van der Hoek, and S.J. More. 2013. Q fever in humans and farm animals in four European countries, 1982 to
2010. Eurosurveillance 18:20407.
Tularemia
Otto, P., V. Chaignat, D. Klimpel, R. Diller, F. Melzer, W. Müller, and H. Tomaso. 2013. Serological Investigation of Wild
Boars (Sus scrofa) and Red Foxes (Vulpes vulpes) As Indicator Animals for Circulation of Francisella tularensis in Germany.
Vector-Borne Zoon Dis [Epub ahead of print; doi.10.1089/vbz.2013.1321]
Sting, R., M. Runge, T. Eisenberg, S. Braune, W. Müller, and P. Otto. 2013. Comparison of bacterial culture and polymerase
chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica in wild animals. Berl Münch Tierärztl Wschr 126:285290.
Transmissible spongiforme encephalopathies:
Priemer, G., A. Balkema-Buschmann, B. Hills, and M.H. Groschup. 2013. Biochemical Characteristics and PrPSc Distribution
Pattern in the Brains of Cattle Experimentally Challenged with H-type and L-type Atypical BSE. PLoS one 8:e67599.
Wadsworth, J.D., S. Joiner, J.M. Linehan, A. Balkema-Buschmann, J. Spiropoulos, M.M. Simmons, P.C. Griffiths, M.H.
Groschup, J. Hope, S. Brandner, E.A. Asante und J. Collinge 2013. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in
transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein. Emerg Infect Dis 19: 1731-1739. doi: 10.3201/eid1911.121341.
b)
International conference presentations: ......................... n.d.
Selected presentations of the FLI (incomplete list):
Balkema-Buschmann A., L. Kwasnitschka, K. Fischer, G. Kerth, V. Zeus, B. Ohlendorf and M. H. Groschup: ‘PCR Screening
for Viral Nucleic Acid Sequences in Bat Colonies in Germany’. 7th Annual Epizone Meeting, Brüssel Sept 2013
Balkema-Buschmann A. and M.H. Groschup: ‘Atypical Scrapie: Intra- and Interspecies Profile’ 11th Annual Conference of
Neuroscience Society of Nigeria, Ibadan Nov 2013
Balkema-Buschmann A., C. Fast, G. Priemer und M.H. Groschup: ‘Pathogenesis of classical and atypical BSE in cattle’. 11th
Annual Conference of Neuroscience Society of Nigeria, Ibadan Nov 2013
Harder, T. Vaccines against swine influenza – 5th World Vaccine Congress 18 – 21 March 2013, Hangzou, China
Harder, T. Birds as reservoirs of orthomyxo- paramyxo and flaviviruses. – Nordic-Baltic Seminar on the role of the wildlife as
reservoir and /or spread of infectious animal diseases in the coastal areas of countries bordering the Baltic Sea, Nordic
Veterinary Contingency Group 2 -3 October 2013 Gdansk, Polen
Harder, T. Emerging infectious diseases - 2nd Workshop of the European Network on Viral Vaccine Processes, DECHEMA 10
– 11 November 2013, Frankfurt a.M., Germany
Harder, T. Cost benefit trade-offs in influenza monitoring – Meeting of the national reference laboratories, European
Commission, 22 – 24 May 2013, Helsinki, Finnland
Hänsel CH, F Melzer, R Diller, HD Zacher, A Henke, H Neubauer, MC Elschner: Establishment Of An Interferon-GammaRelease-Assay For Glanders Diagnosis In Horses – First Results. 16th Intern Symposium of the World Association of
Laboratory Diagnosticians, June 5-8, 2013 Berlin Abtractbook S.221.
Koziy R., M.C. Elschner, F. Melzer , V. Skrypnyk, A. Skrypnyk Evaluation of several Complement Fixation Test Antigens and a
RBT antigen for Serological Diagnosis of Glanders 16th Intern Symposium of the World Association of Laboratory
Diagnosticians, June 5-8, 2013 Berlin Abstractbook S. 194
Moser, I. Spoligotyping Microarray, EU-Referencenlaboratory meeting Madrid 2013
Ulrich, R.G. Rodent monitoring in Germany 2010-2012, EDENext, Annual meeting, Barcelona, 19.03. 2013.
c)National conference presentations: ............................. n.d.
Selected presentations of the FLI (incomplete list):
Elschner, M., Neubauer H. – Glanders- a pespective by the OIE-Reference Laboratory, Presentation at the Annual Congress of
(IAVMI) Indian Association of Veterinary Microbiologists, Immunologists and Specialists in Infectious Diseases, 13-15
December, 2013, Lucknow, India
16th International Symposium of the World Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians: WAVLD, 5 -8 June 2013,
Berlin (several presentation at different workshops)
6. Riemser Diagnostiktage, National Symposium on the diagnostics of animal diseases. 21 -22 November 2013 Greifswald.
14
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
Zoonoses in Europe
Contributions including avian influenza, rift valley fever, west Nile fever, Usutu disease, bovine tuberculosis, cow pox,
brucellocis, Schmallenberg virus infection
d)
Other: ............................................................................... 21
(Provide website address or link to appropriate information)
Manfred Weidmann, Mandy Elschner: Practical Considerations for Collection and Transportation of Hemorrhagic Fever
Samples - Chapter 11 IN: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Sunit K . Singh and Daniel Ruzek CRC Press 2013 Print ISBN: 978-1-43988429-4, eBook ISBN: 978-1-4398-8431-7
Banyard, A.C., D.T.S. Hayman, C.M. Freuling, T. Müller, A.R. Fooks, and N. Johnson. 2013. Bat Rabies. In: Jackson, A.C. (ed.),
Rabies - Scientific Basis of the Disease and Its Management, 3rd Edition, Academic Press, ISBN: 978-012396547-9, 704 p., p.
215-267.
Barrow, P.A., and U. Methner. 2013. Vaccination against Salmonella Infections in Food Animals: Rationale, Theoretical Basis
and Practical Application. In: Barrow, P., and U. Methner (eds.), Salmonella in Domestic Animals, 2 nd Edition, CAB
International, ISBN: 978-1-8459-3902-1, 560 p., p. 455-475.
Belaya, V., H. Hansen, and B. Pinior. 2013. Measuring the Costs of Foodborne Diseases: a Review and Classification of the
Literature. Schriften der Gesellschaft für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften des Landbaues e.V. 48:47-58.
Fast, C. and M.H. Groschup. 2013. Classical and Atypical Scrapie in Sheep and Goats. In: Zou, W.-Q. and P. Gambetti (eds.),
Prions and Diseases: Vol. 2, Animals, Humans and the Environment, Springer Science+Business Media, New York, ISBN: 9781-4614-5338-3_2, 295 p., p. 15-44.
Foster, N., and A. Berndt. 2013. Immunity to Salmonella in Farm Animals and Murine Models of Disease. In: Barrow, P., and
U. Methner (eds.), Salmonella in Domestic Animals, 2nd Edition, CAB International, ISBN: 978-1-8459-3902-1, 560 p., p. 136161.
Johnson, N., A.R. Fooks, C. Freuling, T. Müller, H. Ün, O. Aylan, N. Ünal, S. Eskiizmirliler, N. Akkoca, and A. Vos. 2013. The
Role of Phylogeography in the Control of Wildlife Rabies in Turkey. In: Introduction to Sequence and Genome Analysis III,
iConcept
Press
Ltd.,
ISBN:
978-1-922227-09-6,
279
p.
URL:
http://www.iconceptpress.com/www/site/papers.webView.php?publicationID=BK025-3-1
Shivaprasad, H.L., U. Methner, and P.A. Barrow. 2013. Salmonella Infections in the Domestic Fowl. In: Barrow, P., and U.
Methner (eds.), Salmonella in Domestic Animals, 2nd Edition, CAB International, ISBN: 978-1-8459-3902-1, 560 p., p. 162-192.
Wernike, K., B. Hoffmann, and M. Beer. 2013. Schmallenberg virus. In: Roth, J.A., J.A. Richt, I.A. Morozov (eds.), Vaccines
and Diagnostics for Transboundary Animal Diseases, Dev Biol, Basel, 135:175-182.
Rabies Bulletin Europe: Rabies Information System of the WHO Collaboration Centre for Rabies Surveillance and Research (4
issues per year) http://www.who-rabies-bulletin.org
_______________
Annual reports of OIE Reference Centres, 2013
15
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