Chapter Four
Poetic Voices
 Understanding of the invented voices by exploring "poetic" language.
 Poetry relies on patterns of sound.
 How to create "poetic" voices, and "poem".
4.1 The meaning of "poetic"
(Activity p153)
 "Poetic" means, language is written in poetic form.
 By Lynda Prescott, "poetic" can also be used as a compliment, synonym for
 By David Mamet, "poetic" means using language.
 "Poetic" can also used to suggest a rich, elaborate language, that depends much
more than everyday speech on overt metaphor and simile.
 Reading three extracts by "Samuel Beckett", "Dylan Thomas" and "Bryony
Lavery" p (193). Each uses language in way that might be called unusual,
eccentric and more intense way associate with more conventional prose.
Heightened sense of language as something more mobile and fluent.
 Characteristics of Poem p (154)
 Poem has written in shape and layout.
 Lines arranged in some way.
 Lines are similar length or different length.
 Poem lay out in stanzas.
Look at p (155), definition of rhyme and types of rhyme.
4.2 Repetition and Poetry
p (156-159)
The most important method used by poets to shape language is repetition.
 There are particular ways can use repetition in writing in poetry p (156)
The repetition of some formal aspect of structure (use of pattern stanzas).
The repetition, either exactly or less precisely, of a phrase.
The repetition of sounds (vowels or consonants) this point is very important.
Notice: please review the information about "vowels" and "consonants" p (156-158).
We have constructed a brief pattern of repetitions, which we might call "harmonies".
4.3 Song and Poem
p (160-161)
 Poetry is a lineal descendant of song.
 "Songs" and "poem" comes from Italian word for "little song".
 Songs continue to be repetitive, to use choruses.
 Poetry has developed from being spoken to being written.
 The repetitions and echo have become more subtle.
 Contemporary poetry continues to use rhyme
 The repetitions give the poem its voice buried in text.
 The repetition in poem not just of words but of sounds ,particular vowel's sounds
 Poem become like echo-chambers.
 Activity
p (160).
There are contemporary song, "Amelia" by Joni Mitchell and contemporary
poem, "Golf" by Jane Draycott.
 Characteristics of "Amelia":
Several examples of rhyme or near rhyme.
Several internal echoes.
A key phrase is repeated too "it was".
The words "Amelia" and "alarm" both used the same two key consonants
m and l.
"Amelia" not only makes the song easier to remember, but also to sing.
 Characteristics of Draycott's poem :
There are many repetitions and echoes.
Less obvious at first.
Principally of vowels sounds.
There are repetitions, too "first to".
Half –rhymes title with the final word "golf".
It more intricate than song.
It has cunningly borrowed the phrase "boundless and bare".
A poem set in desert, so there are confrontation between the onlooker and
wrecked and ancient memorial plinth: emphasizing the distance between
past and present.
4.4 Syllables and Stress p (162-163).
Notice: all the information from out the book.
 Stress: putting more force on certain syllable.
 Rules of words stress:
 Nouns and adjective are two syllables, the stress on first syllable like father.
 Verbs are two syllables, the stress on the second like across.
 Words with three syllables or more, the stress on the before last one like
 P (163) stress is important for creator of a poetic voice ,and poetry is more
musical than prose
4.5 Writing in a Poetic Voice
p (164).
 Some strategies of writing a poem:
 Limbering-up exercises and what you write may well seem rough and ready
That is an important part to process
All poems you have read start to put jotted notes or phrase
 Avoid words that you would not hear.
 Avoid abstract nouns.
 Used your skills with sounds, structures, images, and ideas.
4.6 Drafting the Voice
p (168).
 Poems about painting or photographs are a good way of trying out voices,
because they focus your imagination.
 Handwritten drafts have the advantage of allowing you to see the changes you
have made more easily.
4.7 The Tone of Poetic Voice
p (172).
There are ways in which you might achieve the chosen voic,ech, and rhythm
 Whether the voice was your own, or of someone else.
 What kind of vocabulary you should use.
 How many breaks or pauses you should introduce.
 How you could imply the mood, rather than explain it.
 Whether to use end-rhyme, internal- rhyme, half -rhyme.
 The potion length of the pieces.
 How you might lay the piece out on the page.
4.8 A Variety of Voices
p (174-180).
I will give some examples of how contemporary writers have created voices that are
thoughtful, jaunty and angry.
 Thoughtful
Achieving thoughtful, perhaps quizzical tone of voice in poem may mean writing in
a looser, clearly conversation ton.
 See in opening to poem " Forgetfulness" by Billy Collins p(174)
 The method is loose-limbed conversational rhyme
 Fourth line include eight beats and eighteen syllables
 Repetition less in lines
Collins said bout the tone, it very important because you are really conveying the spirit
of the poem.
 "Lesson" by Michael Laskey. P(175)
 The thoughtful is achieved by great deal of understatement and the address
from "I" to "you".
 The movement cross the lines is unobtrusive and the rhythm mirror the steady
pace of the events.
 The words which denote pace are not sudden at all
 There is brief moment recording the "shock".
 Using the subtle echo.
 Jaunty
 Jauntiness implies n-tempo beat, and tempo is crucial to the identity of a poetic
 The beat is plainly going to be more pronounced in an up-tempo poem.
 A jaunty voice is an enthusiastic voice, one the takes ostentatious pleasure in
what it says.
 "Skipping Rhyme for Graduates" by Sophie Hannah
 Title implies skips along with malicious glee.
 Repetitions extend to rhyming that to give the emphasis.
 Phrase repetitions more ostentatious.
 Slang vocabulary breeze the reader along.
 No internal echo on the vowel sound, and only alliteration
 The rhyme scheme is loose, too ABCB which gives a comic voice.
 "The Examiners" by John Whitworth.
 This Is a sinister voices to create a momentary frisson or fright, and comically
 First stanza ha rhyme and repetition
The voice of a music-hall because of ostentation of internal rhymes
 Angry
Outright splenetic rage I exceptionally hard to manage in a poem.
Controlled anger, which will carry more force, and run less risk of being comic,
need to be emphatic, direct.
 "First Gulf War" by Tony Harrison
 This poem possesses authority
 Bitterness I controlled by rhymes, and general firmness of rhyme.
 He expresses of his invective by repeating phrases.
 He used a colloquial, naturally ordered language and including direct and
monosyllabic phrases.
 Poem I personal and political.
 "Ill-Wishing Him" by Dorothy Nimmo
 Importance of repetition
 Accessibility of language.
 Poetic voice is made stronger by incremental nature of the curses.
4.9 Creating Voice of Authority
p (181-183).
 Authority is not the poem, licensed by state long history the laureateship in
Great British has never been known to produce poems of any special character.
 "Ode" by Tennyson
 It continues for a further 274 lines.
 It was received with "Universal deprecation".
 It laureate poems.
Laureateship: is royal appointment, with history going back, to write public poetry
in honour or celebration of national events.
 In poetry, the authority of voice will often come not from its public but it
privet quality, intimacy, power, and emotional honesty.
 The authority of writer stems, too, not from the depiction of character but
from the clarity and motional force of writer's voice.
4.10 Writing with Authority
p (184)
 "Spider" by Geoff Hattersley.
What gives authority to Hattersley's enjoyably daft poem is resonance of
 The authority of the written word, incantation of implication, and spoken
4.11 Developing a Subject for a Poem
p (186)
You have looked at the way that poetry, as a verbal art, highly language, possessing an
invented voice, rhythmic, musical.
Revision "Mariana" activity, and "Golf"
4.12 Experimenting with Language
p (186) and remember some styles are used
(Activity p 187)
 Figure p (188) there is some tactics.
 More tricky voice to explore.
 Poem operates as a liquid soundscape, pure sound with rhythms.
 Murray has used internal, half, and near rhyme and echo.
 He compresses the language, editing out some words to create a sense mass.
 There is a hidden voice "the speaker or poet- telling us".
 He invents the compound word.
 He has insinuated his own voice, and can hear his voice.
 Exploring the choral natural of creatures and their movement.
The preparation:
Ebaa Afeef.
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