Caravoulias 1 The Popular Canterbury Tales and Their Important Themes Tyler Caravoulias HI 302 Medieval History S.Corvi April 24, 2013 Caravoulias 2 In the late 14th century Geoffrey Chaucer, a poet, scholar, and Philosopher of the time scribed the greatest numerous collection of poetic stories that would be revered for hundreds and hundreds of years to come. The Canterbury tales are a collection of stories from 24 pilgrims and Chaucer who traveled from Southwick to St. Thomas Beckett’s shrine at Canterbury cathedral. The pilgrims competed in a story telling contest to which the winner would win a free meal at an inn when they returned to Southwick. Chaucer’s tales tell stories that spread everlasting values that still hold prevalence today. In this paper I will be going over six of the most prominent tales that hold concurrent values and are well known. First, I will discuss the Knight’s tale and how Greek mythology entered into Chaucer’s writings and what values the story expresses. Next I will discuss the Friar’s tale and how Chaucer disliked the Roman Catholic Church and how this was one of the first satiric works of Chaucer. Next I will discuss the tales of the Miller and the Reeve and how they fit together and how Chaucer incorporated comedy into his tales. Next I will evaluate the Physician’s tale and how Chaucer referenced Roman law, and how virginity is the purest form of life. And lastly I will go over the most popular tale that dealt with death and betrayal, the Pardoner’s tale. In the tales there are many main themes that Chaucer touches on. Some of those themes are Christianity and the mocking thereof, vengeance and justice, comedy, sex, and love. For each of the tales I will discuss how the main theme effect the telling’s of the tales and why the themes are everlasting truths about medieval culture and human nature. Chaucer created the Canterbury Tales which is a large collection of tales told by virtuous people as well as those with questionable professions, the tales are lengthy at times but they hold themes that continue to last to this very day. Caravoulias 3 What does the Knight’s Tale tell us? The Knight’s Tale begins with the king of Athens, Theseus, conquering Thebes and taking two cousins prisoner and locking them in the tower of Athens as a trophy of his great victory. The cousins Arcite and Palamon were imprisoned in the tower for years and one morning Palamon awoke early and peered out of the tower to spot the sister of the queen of Athens, Emily, taking a walk in the garden. Due to her great beauty Palamon fell instantly in love and loudly proclaimed that she must be his. The commotion caused by Palamon awoke Arcite and brought his attention to Emily in the garden, to which Arcite also fell madly in love. The two cousins began to compete wildly with each other for Emily’s hand and soon enough Arcite was released from the tower and exiled from Greece never to return. But Arcite was smitten with Emily and refused to let his love go so he devised a plan in which he would sneak back into Athens and join into the palace’s services and work his way to be one of Emily’s aids, to which he was successful. Meanwhile, Palamon grew tired waiting for his release from prison and he devised a plan to escape by drugging the guard of the tower and he would escape. This plan was quite successful and he soon hid in the grove and waited for Emily to pass by on her walk and he would jump out and attempt to win her love. As Palamon waited he grew weary and began to hear someone singing of love and fortune and as he looked for the source he found Arcite singing to Emily in progress of winning her heart. Immediately the two men, upon seeing each other, began to fight and this commotion was heard by Theseus. Theseus raced to find of the fighting and came upon Arcite and Palamon fighting in front of a very frightened Emily so he broke up the fight. Being the grand leader and embracer of love that he was Theseus came up with a way to solve this dilemma. The plan was for each man to round up a 100 man force and battle in the grand arena in a spectacular show to Caravoulias 4 which the champion would win Emily’s hand in marriage. The two men agreed and soon after began to gather up their forces and were quite successful in their efforts. On the eve of the battle prayers were made to the god for great success in battle not only by Arcite and Palamon but by Emily as well. Palamon prayed to Venus, the goddess of love, for Emily’s hand in marriage, Arcite prayed to Mars, the god of war, for victory on the battle field, and lastly Emily prayed to Diana, the goddess of the hunt that represented purity and virginity, and asked never to be married unless it was to the one of the men that was truly best for her. The next day the tournament commenced and the battle was grand; to prevent any loss of life in the battle Theseus ordered his guards to drag any man out of the battle that became wounded, disarmed, or was incapable in continuing to fight in any way. The battle went on and soon enough Palamon was injured to where he was dragged from the battle stopping the tournament and declaring Arcite the winner. During his celebration the grandfather of all the gods, Saturn, intervened causing Arcite’s horse to rear up and fall back on him eventually killing him. As he laid there dying Emily, Palamon, and Theseus rushed to his side and he proclaimed that Emily should Palamon because he is the more honorable and better man for her. In honor of Arcite’s dying wish Emily later married Palamon and this ends the story of the Knight. in the end the gods granted all three wishes of the people involved also this story shows that the gods are kind but and will answer prayers but not always in the fashion that is clear cut.1 This story shows what can happen because of loves consequences and how so much can be influenced by love. This story also shows that love can break bonds of friendship and even those as strong as blood bonds which is a common theme in many of today’s romantic literature as well as a common theme in later authors, one of the most famous being Shakespeare.2 This tale also shows Chaucer’s ability to use mythology and how well versed he was in the subject. Caravoulias 5 Mythology, both Greek and Roman, play parts in all of Chaucer’s tales as they incorporate classical themes of tragedy, drama, and humor. This story shows how Chaucer could paint a picture and tell a great classical story that spoke of great mythological characters and how both love and friendship play with each other in life.3 What does the Friar’s Tale tell us? The Friar’s tale tells of a traveling Summoner and his interaction with a demon described as a Yeoman. The story begins with the traveling Summoner on his way to drum up a false charge to get some money. Along the way the Summoner meets a Yeoman and they begin to talk, to which the Yeoman asks the Summoner what he does for work. Being a largely disliked profession of the time the Summoner lies and says he is a Bailiff and the Yeoman also lies and says he is a Bailiff as well. Their conversation continues on to the subject of how they make their money and they both make their money in whatever way they can. Based on this trust between the newly found acquaintances the Yeoman eventually admits he is actually a demon from hell and the Summoner is not taken back by this at all and merely asks how he is able to take human form. The two eventually travel together for a short period where they come across a Carter whose horses refuse to move. The Carter grew increasingly angry with the horses and damned them to hell. Eventually the horses begin to move and the Carter then praises god for this blessing. After this ordeal the Summoner then criticizes the demon for not capitalizing of the damnation of the horses but the demon then explained himself by saying that the damnation was not sincere and then he eventually praised god so he could not take the horses. Due to this situation the Summoner says to the demon that he will show how a job is done properly and soon Caravoulias 6 looks for a nearby home to extort. The nearest home is the small farm of a widow and he begins by telling the widow right out that he will drum up a false charge and summon her to court if she does not bribe him otherwise. She begrudgingly complies but also the Summoner asks for another payment in the form of her new pan because he falsely claimed that he had to pay off a charge of adultery. Because of this the widow damns the Summoner to hell unless he repents the false charges to which the Summoner refuses. But because the damnation was sincere and the Summoner refused to comply the demon took up the offer and took the Summoner’s body, soul, and subsequently the frying pan as well back to hell.4 This particular tale tells us a lot about Chaucer and his intelligent use of irony as well as his satirical view of the medieval judicial and clerical systems. The use of irony in the story is very apparent in every way. The first example is when the two come across the Carter who damns his horses and then immediately praises god when they move. This was done to show the way faith worked back then and even how it works today. If something is going not well for one individual they will immediately damn the problem and not pray to the good forces to help but as soon as something good happens they thank god for what may have happened naturally. The other use of irony is consequently the second half of the story and how the Summoner mocks the demon for not taking the horses but as soon as someone damns the Summoner it is sincere and the demon capitalizes on the matter.5 Another major factor in this story is that deception is deadly for the deceiver unless they repent and tell the truth. Also that the truth is always more important than continuing a lie that only benefits you and the last major theme lies outside of the story with the story teller. This tale is a bitter attack at the profession of being a Summoner by the Friar and speaks that a Summoner could so easily belong with a demon in the same context and fed into the constant feud between the Friar and the Summoner on the journey. Caravoulias 7 What do the tales of the Miller and Reeve tell us? In this segment of the Canterbury Tales two tales are told together because of their comedic occurrences and reoccurring themes of sex and adultery. First, the Miller’s Tale speaks of an unwise carpenter and his cheating, lying wife and two men’s attempts to win her hand. John is an uneducated carpenter and his wife is Alison who is extremely beautiful and very promiscuous and they decide to rent out two of their rooms to two young men Nicholas, a scholar and student, and Absolon, a clerk in the church. One day while John is out of town Nicholas coaxes Alison to sleep with him and they soon begin their affair behind John’s back. While John is gone Alison feels guilty and goes to church to repent her sins where she meets her other admirer Absolon who attempts to swoon her by singing love songs which appears to be unsuccessful because she is already in one affair with Nicholas. Soon after Absolon’s first attempt he continues to attempt to win Alison over by giving her gifts which she graciously accepts but never does anything with Absolon. John soon returned home stopping the affairs that Alison is in but that was not good enough for Nicholas. Nicholas then devised a plan to trick John into disappearing so he could spend another night with Alison. Nicholas soon told John that the second great biblical flood was soon to happen and that John would need to build three tubs and suspend them in the attic and cut the rope when the water began to rise. John complied and the night the flood was supposed to happen Nicholas and Alison climbed out of the tubs and slipped into John’s bed and began to consummate. As this was happening Absolon appeared at the window and called for Alison to appear and plant a kiss on his lips. Not wanting to do such a thing Alison stuck her naked butt out of the window and Absolon kissed her rear instead of her lips. Immediately noticing the taste of what wasn’t a sweet kiss Absolon was furious so he went to the black smith and looked for a Caravoulias 8 hot tool. Absolon grabbed a red-hot coulter and returned to the window and maliciously asked Alison for another kiss, but this time it was Nicholas’s butt to appear and Absolon jammed the hot tool right up inside of Nicholas badly burning him. Upon receiving this wound Nicholas screamed very loudly for water which awoke John and after hearing the commotion for water he cut the rope and the tub crashed down. The tub crashed right through the ceiling onto the bed, breaking John’s arm and revealing the affair. The neighbors soon heard the commotion and ran into the house to see what was wrong to where they saw an affair in progress with John watching. John attempted to explain his reason for the second great flood but the neighbors just though he was insane and a cuckold for watching the affair between his wife and another man. John was greatly mocked by this and laughed at while Nicholas stood there naked with his anus burning and Alison with her adulterous behavior on display.7 Next is the tale of the Reeve that goes right along with the Miller in the sense that they are both highly comically charged also the Miller and Reeve tend to mock each other throughout the journey. The tale of the Reeve begins with a miserly and malicious Miller named Simkin who would steal wheat and meal as it was brought to him to grind up. The story takes place after Simkin overcharges for a job he took at a college and the college Steward was too cowardly to call Simkin on the lofty price. Two students at the college, John and Aleyn, were fed up with Simkin and thought they could outsmart the old Miller by catching him in the act. The students packed more wheat then what would be normally expected and gave it to Simkin and asked to watch him do his work because they were interested and they would see if he was truly dishonorable and if he would take the extra for himself. The students thought they were so smart with this plan but they failed miserably due to the fact that Simkin was smarter than he appeared and caught on to the rouse and snuck and packed even more wheat than what the students did. Caravoulias 9 Simkin ground all of the wheat into flour that the students gave him and when he found his chance he slipped out and untied the student’s horse from the post and it ran off. As the students scrambled to look for the horse Simkin grabbed a few sacks of flour and took it as his own and as night fell Simkin gave the flour to his wife to bake bread. After the long search for the horse the students returned to Simkin and asked for a place to stay at his house and feeling bad leaving the students out in the cold Simkin agreed. The only thing is that Simkin had to rearrange his small house that slept three adults normally to now accommodate two more. Simkin’s plan was to have his daughter, Malyne, in one bed, have John and Aleyn in another bed, and lastly have himself and his wife in the last bed with their six month old baby in a cradle at the foot of their bed. The dinner that night commenced and much wine drinking and merriment proceeded to the point where the group was drunk and Simkin and his wife went to bed early. As John and Aleyn went to bed Aleyn got the bright idea to slip into Malyne’s bed and as he did this Malyne was feeling good enough that her and Aleyn began to consummate just feet from her parents. Later as the night went on Simkin’s wife awoke and went to relieve herself and as she went out of the room John took action and slid the cradle from the foot of Simkin’s bed to the foot of his bed, and upon returning the darkness must’ve confused the wife so she felt for the cradle and climbed into the nearest bed, which happened to be John’s bed. As she got in the bed John began to feel frisky and the two began to have sex, again just feet from Simkin. In the early hours of the morning Aleyn awoke and consoled a crying Malyne because she did not want her new found lover to leave so soon so she told him of the bread and how her father robs people of wheat and grain. After this Aleyn climbed back into what he thought was his original bed to awake John and a great shock came when he actually found the sleeping man to be Simkin. Upon awaking Simkin the two began to fight which awoke Simkin’s sleeping wife and being confused she grabbed a Caravoulias 10 club and hit the nearest man that was arguing thinking she would stop the quarrel, but in reality she actually clubbed Simkin. Upon seeing who she actually hit Simkin’s wife collapsed to the floor to aid him and the two students sprung up and decided to leave. On their way out the students grabbed the bread and Simkin’s horse as revenge for his crimes.8 In these stories there are many common themes which are a clue to why they are usually told in the same comical context. These stories contain a lot of comedy because of their story tellers and how often these are wise cracks at certain professions and how one is more or less intelligent than another. Another major theme is the common occurrence that knowledge is valuable in both the Miller’s and Reeve’s tale there are students that attempt to pull off duping an unsuspecting victim. Another theme that is used is the fact that sex is usually a prominent goal and that it is usually associated with adultery. This shows that Chaucer was no afraid to incorporate sex into his tales and that often times sex could be seen with a comical view and not as such a serious matter that the church wanted it to be seen as.9\ What does the Physician’s Tale tell us? The Physician’s tale begins with a noble knight, Virginius, and his beautiful daughter Virginia who is strikingly beautiful as well as endowed with all sorts of other noble attributes. As Virginia walks about the city she gains many favors of many men but none like the greedy judge Apius who is instantly smitten and would do anything to make Virginia all his. Apius sends the most disreputable city guard Claudius to retrieve Virginia under the false charge that Virginius once took a young slave girl from Apius’s palace and held her as his own until she was ready for marriage. Virginius is unable to defend himself at the time that he hears word of Virginia’s impending capture because her mother died long ago so he tells Virginia that she must accept Caravoulias 11 one of two fates. The first fate is to be taken back to Apius and suffer shame and impurity at the hands of evil of face death now and remain pure. Virginia being the noble woman that she is says that she would rather die now, a virgin, rather than suffer great shame at the hands of Claudius and Apius. Virginius assists in this fate by cutting off Virginia’s head in one strike and bringing it to Apius’s court to show what he forced upon the young beauty. Apius, enraged, orders Virginius to be hanged for the crime of murder but the hanging never came to fruition because the public knew of Apius and his treachery. Apius ended up imprisoned and Claudius was to be hanged for his involvement but Virginius pleaded for mercy for the city guard and ended up just getting him exiled.10 The Physician’s tale tells us more about Chaucer than anything else and shows how well versed he was in Roman law as well as in Roman customs and traditions. To start Chaucer choses the names Virginius and Virginia to represent virginity, purity, and nobility which one can assume is a conscious decision because of the nature of the tale. The choice laid out for Virginia speaks volumes about Chaucer and his nature and how he felt about virginity and purity which can be reflected in a good many of his tales. Another major factor in the story is the old Roman idea that justice will be served and that Chaucer understood how the Roman justice system would’ve handled such an event. One last idea to keep in mind is that virtuous men will always prevail in times of need and that Virginius lost his daughter the two men responsible for such acts were brought to justice and Virginius remained noble.11 What does the Pardoner’s Tale tell us? Caravoulias 12 The Pardoner’s tale is that of three drunkards that set out on a quest to find and kill death and end up dead themselves. The tale begins with three men drinking in a bar to the memory of one their recently departed friend and they eventually devise a plan to find a kill death. The plan of the men is overheard by an interloping old man and the old traveler tells the men that they will find death by the foot of an old oak tree. The three men ridicule the old man for his interjection and set out on the journey to find the oak tree where death is hiding. Eventually the men come across a large oak tree where they find a large sum of gold and they soon decide to spend the night and take the gold with them the following morning. One thing the men need if they spend the night is supplies of food and wine and they come up with the idea of drawing straws to see who will go into town. The loser of the straw drawing is the youngest of the men and when he gets to town he gets the supplies but he also gets rat poison to kill the other two men and claim the gold for his own. But the youngest wasn’t the only one to plot to kill the two other men left at the tree plotted to stab the other man when he returned, but when the youngest returned he poisoned the wine and gave the supplies to the men to which they subsequently murdered him. After their murderous deed the two other men felt thirsty and drank the poisoned wine and both subsequently died. So as the tale goes three men set out to find death and they surly did.12 This tale is one of the more famous tales and often represents all of the tales when people talk about the entirety of Chaucer’s works. This tale is told by the pardoner who is an agent of the Roman Catholic who would sell pardons from sins and often would sell false pardons to make a quick buck. Through this story Chaucer shows his bias against the church and basically insults the whole practices of the church and how corrupt the church had become over the years. Just the fact that the pardoner, a religious official, tells a tale of greed, death, and murder just goes to show how Chaucer thought of the religious officials of the time. And in the prologue to Caravoulias 13 the tale the pardoner partly admits to the extortion of the poor, pocketing of indulgences, and open disobedience of teachings against jealousy and greed. This tale of the pardoner is one of the more famous tales and it shows how it has great ability to be retold over and over again.13 What are some of the main themes in Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales? In Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales there are many main themes that are very apparent in most of the tales such as feminism and anti-feminism, Christianity, vengeance, sex, adultery, love, justice, and comedy. To start out the first major theme is feminism and anti-feminism which shows up in a couple of the tales that I have explained in this paper. The first occurrence shows up in the Friar’s tale with the exploitation of the widow and that it must’ve been her fault the adultery charge was not paid. Another major happening of the use of anti-feminism comes up in the miller’s and reeve’s tales and how women are shown to be highly charged sexual individuals. The theme also shows up in the fact that the wives in these tales are almost owned by their husbands and in the case of the miller’s tale Alison, the wife, is often tip toeing around her husband to have affairs. Lastly in these two tales another theme of anti-feminism is adultery and how it is always the wife who is so eager to cheat on her husband with another man which many times it was the man who would do such acts in those times.14 Another tale where feminism shows up is in that of the physician, and how Virginia is portrayed as noble and in the end her father gave her the ultimate decision of her life.15 Another major theme in Chaucer’s tales is the use of Christianity and anti-clericalism that shows up in the tales of the friar, miller, and pardoner. First, in the friars tale Chaucer mocks the Christian church by having the Summoner be unafraid of the demon that has taken human form, Caravoulias 14 also he shows open corruption and sin in all of his tales. Next in the miller’s tale Chaucer makes Absolon a member of the church who was in his line of work to get women and attempted to swoon Alison even though she was married. This whole act of a young church member attempting to win the favor of a married woman is a very blasphemous idea now and back then it would’ve been ten times worse.16 The last example of Chaucer’s anti-clericalism, and possibly strongest case, comes in the form of not so much the pardoner’s tale but the description of the pardoner himself. Chaucer describes the pardoner as an openly corrupt individual who would sell false indulgences to people to make a quick buck.17 Another major theme that Chaucer adheres to in almost all of his tales is vengeance and this theme pops up in the tales of the friar, miller, physician, and pardoner. First in the tale of the friar Chaucer makes the widow a vengeful person who damns the greedy Summoner and subsequently the demon takes the Summoner back to hell. Next, in the reeve’s tale the students swear vengeance in Simkin and they eventually get it in the way of sleeping with his wife and daughter, taking his bread, and stealing his horse. In the tale of the miller Absolon is duped into kissing Alison’s butt and he comes back and gets his vengeance to where John eventually finds out about his wife’s affair. Lastly in the tale of the pardoner the youngest man in the group is brutally murdered and his vengeance is eventually complete when the two men drink the poisoned wine. Chaucer had a clear sense of justice and vengeance in his writing and that justice will be served to those who deserve it.18 With the theme of vengeance the other major theme is justice that Chaucer injects into almost all of the same tales. In the friar’s tale the Summoner is served his justice for his treachery and greed. In the miller’s tale justice is served all the way around in the sense that Nicholas was burned, Alison was found out, Absolon was humiliated, and John broke his arm Caravoulias 15 and was mocked for his stupidity. Next, in the reeve’s tale the miller gets his justice served to him for his continuous misdeeds and thievery. Another instance of justice appears in the physician’s tale in the way that Apius and Claudius are punished for their misdeeds to Virginia and Virginius. That last instance of justice being served is in the pardoner’s tale where all three men meet death for their greed and mistreatment of the old man who often represents death in many interpretations.19 Three major themes often are paired together in Chaucer’s tales because of the reoccurrence of the same core ideas; love, sex, and adultery are often paired in the tales. First in the knight’s tale the theme of love and war comes up and how two cousins were willing to physically fight over love and how rifts can develop because of love. Next in the tales of the miller and the reeve Chaucer uses sex and adultery in a light sense that is almost comical and he uses it so lightly that it is almost a literary tool that was largely unused at the time.20 Lastly, in the physician’s tale the judge, Apius, instantly loves Virginia and would do anything to win her over even it involved kidnapping her against her will. Chaucer uses love and sex in such a way that was unseen in the time and the tales almost read like a romanticism novel of the late 19th century.21 The last major theme that Chaucer adheres to is one that is very apparent in a lot of stories and brings up the entertainment factor of the tales and that theme is comedy. First the use of irony in the friar’s tale is almost comical in the sense that the Summoner calls out the demon for not capitalizing on the carter but later in the story the demon capitalizes on the damnation of the Summoner by the widow. Another major use of comedy in Chaucer’s tales is in the miller’s and reeve’s tales and how the comedy of the situations makes the tales very readable and almost makes one want to continue reading all the tales in order to find more comedy. The last instant of Caravoulias 16 comedy in the tales comes in the way of the pardoner’s tale and how all three men end up killing each other because of their greed and also in the old man’s words that they will find death at the old oak tree which seemed to not be in a physical form but more in an actual sense that all three men met their deaths at each other’s hands at the foot of the tree.22 Why do Chaucer’s tales still hold prevalence today? Chaucer’s tales are still very prevalent today and often times many historians have asked why, but there are many reoccurring themes that kept people entertained in the late 14th century and now today. One reason the tales are still prevalent today are the everlasting themes that keep people coming back for more. The first is sex and how everyone in today’s culture is highly sexually charged and people really like and want to keep reading if there is sex involved. Another theme that gets people really interested is vengeance and justice and how the two can interplay right into someone who may be corrupt or evil getting their dues in the end. Another theme is greed and money and when people see how money can be a driving factor in getting things done. Also people always want to find new ways to gain wealth and often times seeing new ways of getting such wealth can make people want to read on and see how others have gained or lost from such efforts. One last theme that keeps readers entertained is comedy and just the mere fact that comedy is involved in such work is astounding and makes the tales very interesting and readable. Another reason the tales have been so popular is because the tales reveal truths not only about medieval times but about ourselves has humans. Chaucer’s tales tell of a medieval time where corruption was rampant and that the religion of the time was everywhere but nowhere at Caravoulias 17 the same time in the sense that there was so much sin by church officials. These tales tell of greed, corruption, love, sex, and justice which speaks to the times not only back then but today as well. Chaucer also creates a great method of telling his tales in a sense that left a sense of mystery throughout and captured the minds of many. Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales may be one of the oldest works of literature that still captivates audiences today its themes and way of telling a story greatly inspire imaginations to take action and vividly envision the medieval world that has been created by Chaucer. Caravoulias 18 Footnotes 1. "The Knight's Tale." The Canterbury tales. Film. Directed by Jonathan Myerson London: BBC Worldwide, 1998. 2. 25-29. Whittock, Trevor. A Reading of the Canterbury Tales.1968. 3. 54-62. Olson, Paul A.. The Canterbury tales and the good society.1986. 4. 23-33. Lambdin, Laura C., and Robert T. Lambdin. Chaucer's pilgrims: an historical guide to the pilgrims in The Canterbury tales.1996. 5. 37-38. Craik, T. W.. The comic tales of Chaucer.1964. 6. 40-41. Ibid 7. "The Miller’s Tale." The Canterbury tales. Film. Directed by Jonathan Myerson. London: BBC Worldwide, 1998. 8. “The Reeve’s Tale” The Canterbury tales. Film. Directed by Jonathan Myerson. London: BBC Worldwide, 2000. 9. 54-65.Craik, T. W.. The comic tales of Chaucer.1964. 10. 40-45. Lambdin, Laura C., and Robert T. Lambdin. Chaucer's pilgrims: an historical guide to the pilgrims in The Canterbury tales.1996. 11. 67-68. Whittock, Trevor. A Reading of the Canterbury Tales.1968. 12. “The Pardoner's Tale” The Canterbury tales. Film. Directed by Jonathan Myerson. London: BBC Worldwide, 2000. 13. 23-26. Faulkner, Dewey R.. Twentieth century interpretations of the Pardoner's tale; a collection of critical essays,.Prentice-Hall, 1973. Caravoulias 19 14. 85-92. Lambdin, Laura C., and Robert T. Lambdin. Chaucer's pilgrims: an historical guide to the pilgrims in The Canterbury tales.1996. 15. 93. Ibid. 16. 45-46. Olson, Paul A.. The Canterbury tales and the good society.1986. 17. 50-51. Faulkner, Dewey R.. Twentieth century interpretations of the Pardoner's tale; a collection of critical essays,.Prentice-Hall, 1973. 18. 70-72. Whittock, Trevor. A Reading of the Canterbury Tales.1968. 19. 25-30. Olson, Paul A.. The Canterbury tales and the good society.1986. 20. 32-35. Ibid. 21. 61-62. Whittock, Trevor. A Reading of the Canterbury Tales.1968. 22. 84-91.Craik, T. W.. The comic tales of Chaucer.1964. Caravoulias 20 Bibliography Craik, T. W.. The comic tales of Chaucer. London: Methuen, 1964. Faulkner, Dewey R.. Twentieth century interpretations of the Pardoner's tale; a collection of critical essays,. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973. Lambdin, Laura C., and Robert T. Lambdin. Chaucer's pilgrims: an historical guide to the pilgrims in The Canterbury tales. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996. Olson, Paul A.. The Canterbury tales and the good society. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1986. "The Knight's Tale." The Canterbury tales. Film. Directed by Jonathan Myerson. London: BBC Worldwide, 1998. "The Miller’s Tale." The Canterbury tales. Film. Directed by Jonathan Myerson. London: BBC Worldwide, 1998. “The Pardoner's Tale” The Canterbury tales. Film. Directed by Jonathan Myerson. London: BBC Worldwide, 2000. “The Reeve’s Tale” The Canterbury tales. Film. Directed by Jonathan Myerson. London: BBC Worldwide, 2000. Whittock, Trevor. A Reading of the Canterbury Tales. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1968.