Chris, Omar, Atty The use of Press in the Third Reich On the 13th of March Josef Goebbels was established as Minister of Propaganda and Enlightenment. Newspaper: The Newspaper used to help spread the message of Gleichschaltung – Nazi regime which established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of society. Those involved in publishing of newspaper, including the owners, the editors and the journalist had to be members of The Reich press chamber – regulated German culture. The official newspaper of the Third Reich was the ‘Volkischer Beobachter’ - It was antisemite, anti- Communist, anti-liberal. Incident of ‘The Frankfurter Zeitung’ – early 1930’s the newspaper was anti-Nazi and voiced some criticism of the regime. Its offices were invaded by storm troopers and were threatened with closure if they didn’t support the Nazi Party. Radio: ‘I consider radio to be the most modern and crucial instrument that exists for influencing the masses. I also believe that radio will in the end replace the press.’ Josef Goebbels, 1933 Goebbels took steps to make radios more widely available. He made a deal with industrialists to promote the mass production and sale of cheap radio sets. In 1938, a cheap radio was available called the ‘Peoples receiver’, costing 35RM. As a result of this policy by 1939, 70% of German households possessed a radio set (highest proportion in the world. The radio enabled Hitler and Goebbels to speak directly to the people. In 1933, Hitler broadcasted 50 speeches over the radio. Radio stations concentrated on political propaganda which alienated the majority of listeners. Censorship: The totalitarian ideology of the Nazis did not permit the expression of any alternative viewpoints or criticism of the regime. They were seen as a threat to the coordination in the ‘people’s community’. Aimed to impose ‘cultural autarky’ where the German people would be sheltered from the outside influences. Censorship of the media: - Bans were placed on the communist and socialist parties, preventing them from publishing any newspaper, books and posters. - Goebbels issued instructions to newspapers and the radio about what could and couldn’t be reported. - Film censorship Goebbels had the right to view scripts.