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Name: ____________________________________________________________________________ Per:___________
Learning Targets:
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Identify factors that limit the existence of species to
certain areas
Describe how and why different communities form
Explain how limiting factors and rages of tolerance affect
distribution of organisms
Date
10/13
Activities
 Lecture: Communities
 Drawing: Succession
 Lab: Succession in a Jar (This lab
will take place over the entire
unit)
 Worksheet 1: Communities
 Reading Questions 1-4 (page 71)
 Worksheet 2: Problem Solving 3-1
 Lab: Ranges of tolerance in
plants (this lab will take place
over the entire unit)
 Planet Earth: Shallow Seas
 Labs: data collection – 10 minutes
 Lecture: Aquatic biomes- light zones
 Worksheet 3: Problem Solving 3-2
 Lab: Comparing and Contrasting
Plankton
 Labs: data collection – 10 minutes
 Lecture: Aquatic biomes- dark zones
 Planet Earth: Deep Ocean
 Labs: data collection – 10 minutes
 Lecture: Freshwater Biomes
 Worksheet 4: Aquatic Biome Review
 Planet Earth: Fresh Water
 Labs: data collection – 10 minutes
 Review/work time
 20 Questions
 Quiz: Communities and Aquatic
Biomes
 Labs: data collection – 10 minutes
 Worksheet 5: Biome Maps (page 78)
 Lecture/Graphic Organizer: Ice
 Planet Earth: Ice Worlds (start)
10/15
Tutor
Time
10/19
10/26
10/28
11/2
11/4
11/6
Tutor
Time
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Labs: data collection – 10 minutes
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11/10
11/13
11/17
Compare and contrast biomes of the planet earth
Identify climate, plants and animals for each major
biome
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11/19
Tutor
Time
11/23
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11/25
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12/1
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12/3
12/7
Planet Earth- Ice Worlds (Finish)
Lecture/Graphic Organizer:
Taiga/Tundra
Worksheet 6: Ice, Taiga and Tundra
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Labs: data collection – 10 minutes
Lecture/Graphic Organizer: Deserts
Planet Earth: Deserts
Labs: data collection – 10 minutes
Lecture/Graphic Organizer:
Grasslands/Great Plains
Planet Earth: Grasslands/Great Plains
COMPLETE LAB: Succession in a
Jar
Worksheet 7: Deserts, Grasslands
and Great Plains
Work time/Review
QUIZ: Ice, Taiga, Tundra, Desert
and Grasslands
Lab: data collection – 10 minutes
Lecture/Graphic Organizer:
Temperate Forest
Planet Earth: Seasonal Forests
Labs: data collection – 10 minutes
Lecture/Graphic Organizer:
Rainforests/Jungles
Planet Earth: Jungles
COMPLETE LAB: Ranges of
Tolerance in Plants
Computers: Formal Lab Reports
Lecture/Graphic Organizer:
Mountains
Planet Earth: Mountains
Worksheet 8: temperate forest,
rainforests/jungles and Mountains
Unit Review
Reading Questions (pages 72-87)Questions 1-5
20 Questions
Packet Time- Packets DUE
Review/practice
Jeopardy
TEST
Vocabulary:
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Climax community
Limiting factor
Primary succession
Secondary
succession
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Aphotic zone
Biome
Climate
Precipitation
Desert
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Estuary
Grassland
Intertidal zone
Permafrost
Photic zone
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Plankton
Taiga
Temperate forest
Tropical rain forest
Tundra
What is a community?
Limiting factors:
Ranges of Tolerance:
Succession:
Climax Community:
Primary versus Secondary Succession:
What is a biome?
Aquatic Biomes:
Marine versus Freshwater:
Photic Zone:
Aphotic Zone:
Biomes
• A ________________________ is a large group of ecosystems that share the same type of climax community.
• Biomes on land have the same _________________, ________________________ and
___________________________
• Biomes in the ocean have the same amount of ____________________and __________________________
Marine Biomes
• Different parts of the ocean differ in _______________________________ and in the
___________________________that live there
• The oceans contain the largest amount of __________________________of any biome on earth
•
One of the ways ecologists study marine biomes is to separate them into
___________________________________:
– Shallow and sunlit
– Deep and unlit
•
The portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate is called the
_____________________________.
Shallow marine environments exist along the coastlines of all landmasses
on__________________________________
These_________________________ ecosystems include: rocky shores, shallow seas, sandy beaches and coral
reefs
Plants can make energy using photosynthesis in their photic zone, because there is _____________________.
•
•
•
•
•
•
________________… twice a day the gravitational pull of the sun and moon cause the rise and fall of the ocean
tides
The portion of the shoreline that lies between the high and low tide lines is called the
_____________________________
The size of this zone depends on upon the ________________________________________ and the
________________________________________
•
Intertidal ecosystems have high levels of ________________, __________________and
_____________________but productivity may be limited by waves crashing against the shore
•
•
____________________________________ differ in rockiness and wave action
Common animals in the intertidal zone are ______________________, sea stars, mussels, barnacles, clams,
worms and _________________
•
Deeper water that never receives sunlight makes up the ______________________________. The aphotic zone
includes the deepest, least explored areas of the ocean
Organisms in the aphotic zone must survive without ____________________ because plants cannot grow
without ________________________.
•
•
Deep organisms either get energy from “______________________________” dead debris floating downward or
from deep sea ___________________________ where hot gasses from the center of the earth release heat and
chemicals. Some organisms create energy from the chemicals, this process is called
___________________________________
•
•
____________________________________ are pools of water left when the water recedes at low tide.
A tide pool can land lock the organisms that live in the intertidal zone until the next
_____________________________.
•
Tide pools vary greatly in ____________________and ___________________levels from the nearby ocean.
Since the tide pool is small, organisms living in there use up the oxygen more ____________________ than in
the big ocean. They often start with a slightly higher oxygen content than the big ocean because of the frothy
oxygen catching waves.
In the Light
• As you move away from the intertidal zone and into the deeper water, the ocean bottom is less and less affected
by the waves and tides. Many organisms live in this shallow water region that surrounds most
__________________________and _______________________.
• Nutrients washed from the land by rainfall contribute to the __________________________ and
__________________________ of this region of the photic zone
• ________________________________ have some of the greatest diversity on the planet
•
•
•
The _________________________ of the marine biome also includes the vast expanse of open ocean that
covers ______________________________ ___________________
Most organisms in the open ocean are _______________________: small organisms that live in the waters of the
photic zone. Some are photosynthetic called _________________________and some eat organic material and
are called ____________________________Plankton is the ____________________________ of the food chain for all other organisms that live in the open
ocean
In the Dark
• Imagine darkness blacker than night and _______________________________so intense it exerts hundreds of
pounds of weight on every square inch of your body’s surface…
• _____________ of the ocean is like this. More than a kilometer deep, _________________________ and
___________________________.
•
Even though animals living in deep are way beneath the photic zone where plankton live, they still
_______________________________________________ for food by eating organisms that feed on the
plankton.
Freshwater Biomes
• Freshwater biomes include: ____________________, ______________________ ponds, streams and creeks
• Freshwater is produced by _______________________________. Precipitation is rain and snow which comes
down on the surface of the earth and eventually makes rivers, streams and lakes
•
•
•
___________________________________ is a great home for tadpoles, aquatic insects and crayfishes
A deep lakes get much_______________________ as the water gets deeper. Also light
____________________________ as the lake deepens.
Rivers and streams are full of fish like _________________ and _________________________
Ice
•
•
•
•
•
•
The _______________________________ is refers to the large polar cap found in the freezing environments in
the Arctic, ___________________________and Antarctic (basically the north and south pole)
Ice Biome includes both ___________________________________ living in the water and
______________________that live in the ice
It is below _______________________ year round
There are ________________________ on land because it is ICE
There are __________________________ in the water (some plankton are photosynthetic
Some ________________________ is able to grow on the snow
•
_______________________ live in the polar ice biome because they have to be adapted to extremely cold
conditions to live here.
– Beluga Whale
– ____________________________________
– Penguins (south pole)
– ____________________________________
– Polar Bear (north pole)
– ___________________________________ (north pole)
– Walrus
Tundra
• Closest to the north pole is the____________________________.
• Tundra is __________________________with long summer days and short periods of winter sunlight
• _________________________________________ in the tundra never rise above freezing for long, only the
topmost layer of soil thaws during the summer resulting______________________________
• Permafrost has stayed frozen for ________________________________________of years! Some species of
extinct organisms, like the mammoth, have been found in permafrost hundreds and thousands of years after
their extinction!
•
•
•
•
•
Taiga
•
•
•
•
________________ very thin, so only _________________________________________ plants grow here.
Mostly__________________________ and very small plants
Because of the cold,___________________________ and _______________________________ of nutrients is
very slow, so the soil is nutrient poor
Mosquitos and other _______________________________________ are very common here
Tundra is home to a variety of small animals such as:
– _____________________________________
– Weasels
– _________________________________________
– Snowshoe hares
– Snowy owls
– __________________________________________And a few larger animals
– Musk Oxen
– _______________________________________
– Reindeer
Just south of the tundra lies the _______________________________________
The Taiga is sometimes called the “Northern Coniferous Forest”
It contains a lot of ________________________________ trees
Conifers have _____________________________ instead of leaves and
stay________________________________ year round
•
Conifers of the Taiga are:
– _____________________________
– Fir
– Hemlock
– _____________________________
•
•
Taiga is somewhat ____________________________and _________________________than the Tundra
The ground is waterlogged and sometimes ________________________________
•
Weather is still harsh, with _________________________________________________________ and short, mild
summers
•
Because there are so many __________________________, the Taiga provides more food and shelter than the
Tundra and has more species of animals. Such as:
– Lynx
– _________________________________
– Minks
– ___________________________________
– Grey wolves
– ____________________________________
– Red Fox
– Desert
Desert
• The desert is an ______________________ (dry) region with sparse to almost no
_____________________________life
• Deserts usually get less than ___________________ of precipitation a year
• The Atacama Desert in Chile, the world’s driest place has an annual rainfall of ____!!!
•
•
•
Vegetation in deserts varies greatly depending on _______________________
Areas that receive ________________ rain have more plants than areas with________________ water
Some desert plants are:
– _________________
– Creosote Bushes
– Mesquite
•
Most desert mammals are small ______________________________ that remain under cover during the heat of
the day
Desert is home to MANY ________________________
It is also home to __________________________
•
•
Common desert animals:
– Snakes
– Tortoise
– __________________________
– Kangaroo Rat
– Insects
– __________________________
– Hawks
– Roadrunners
– __________________________
Grasslands
• __________________________________ are large communities covered with grasses and small plants
• They occur in climates that experience a ___________________________ where there isn’t enough rain to
maintain a ________________________
•
•
•
•
Grasslands are called different things in different countries, but are basically the same as far as rainfall
(_____________ cm a year) and________________________
___________________vary greatly from continent to continent.
Other names for grasslands are: prairies, ________________________ pampas, and
___________________________
•
•
•
Grasslands contain fewer than _______________________________ per 10 acres!
This biome is the largest _____________________________biome and has about 100 different species per acre!
Soil is fairly ____________________ and is great for growing ________________________ and small
_________________________
•
Plants:
–
–
–
–
–
–
_____________________
Rye
Wheat
____________________________________
Sunflowers
Many species of grass
•
Because of the amount of plants to feed on, grasslands are full of large herbivores:
– Bison/buffalo
– _________________________
– Elk
– _____________________
– Giraffe
– Hippopotamus
•
•
It is also home to many _____________________________________ like mice, rats, ferrets and other rodents
It has a lot of predators also:
– Lion
– ________________________
– Fox
Grasslands are also home to many species of ____________________, insects and reptiles
•
Temperate Forest
• When precipitation ranges from about_______________ to _______________ per year and has more moderate
weather a _____________________________________ forms
• A temperate forests are dominated by broad leaved hard wood trees that lose their leaves each year
(____________________________________)
•
Common animals are: _______________________, mice, rabbits, deer and _____________________. Many
birds such as blue jays and ____________________live in the forest all year while others such as
____________________ fly south for the winter.
Tropical Rain Forest
• More species live in the ____________________________ than any other place on earth
• One small national park in Costa Rica has more species of butterfly than all of North America!!
• _________________________ rain forests has become an important mission in recent years because of the plant
and animal ______________________________________.
•
•
Tropical Rain Forests have _______________________ temperatures, ___________________ weather and lush
plant growth
These forests are near the _____________________________ and have an average temperature of 22⁰C (77 ⁰F)
They also get between ____________cm and _____________cm of rain each year
•
Why do tropical rain forests contain so many species? Here are some hypotheses proposed by ecologists:
•
Due to their location near the equator, tropical rain forests were not covered with ice during the ice age.
Thus, the communities of species had more time to evolve
– Unlike the temperate forests, where deciduous trees drop their leaves in autumn, the warm weather near
the equator gives tropical rainforests year round growing conditions which creates a greater food supply
and increases the number of organisms there
– Tropical rain forests provide a multitude of possible habitats for diverse organisms
– Tropical Rain Forest
________________________ is so prevalent because there are so many different
____________________________for animals to live
Rainforest
– ________________________: 25-45m above the ground monkeys, sloths, birds, insects, amphibians and
reptiles live in the tree tops
Rain Forest
– ____________________: Air is still, humid and dark. Insects thrive here, along with snakes, tree frogs,
mosses, birds, and bats
Rain Forest
– ____________________: Moist forest floor. Leaves and other organic material decay quickly. Animals
include: cats like the jaguar and tiger, rodents, ants, termites, earthworms, bacteria and fungi
–
•
•
•
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Mountain Biomes
• Mountain zones change with _______________________________.
• ___________________ mountain areas have lots of trees, plants and animals
• The tops of mountains have continuous __________________and only small _____________________________
•
Common animals of the mountains include:
– Mountain hare
– ______________________________
– Bighorn Sheep
– ________________________________
– Rattle Snake
– _________________________________
– Squirrels, mice, bats
– Lots of snakes, toads, birds and insects
•
•
The bottom of mountains have large ________________________ and _______________________ trees
Further up the trees get___________________ and _____________________ until near the top there are
___________________, and eventually
____________________________________________________________ either
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