o Is an attempt to provide the best outcomes for the human and natural
environments both now and into the indefinite future.
o Three principles of sustainability
 Solar energy
 Chemical recycling
 Biodiversity
Environmental Science
o Consists of biology, chemistry, geology, hydrology, meteorology and
the scientific method, also includes the values used to make decisions
based on the scientific information
Sustainable development
o Development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own
Areas/fields in which sustainability is an issue
o Agriculture
o Energy
o Fisheries
o Forestry
o Minerals and metals
o Tourism
o Water use
Sustainable agriculture
o Consists of agricultural and livestock practices that maintain
environmental balance in the face of intensive agriculture.
Sustainable agricultural practices are…And their definitions
o Organic farming: sustainable agricultural practices that do not
include artificial chemical inputs.
o Soil husbandry: the practice of sustaining and enhancing the quality
of agricultural soils to maximize yields, control pests, and guard
against drought.
o Stubble mulching: the practice of leaving crop residues in the ground
following harvesting.
Examples of environmental, social and economic practices that can promote
sustainability in colleges
o Environmental: reusable bags, green cleaning agents, paperless
meetings, smoke-free spaces, recycling
o Social: encourage student engagement and activism for equity and
o Economic: support fair trade practices and local businesses
Identify/compare/contrast sources of energy and/or matter that are:
Renewable, non-renewable, sustainable (define and list examples)
o Renewable and sustainable sources generate energy in ways that do
not deplete the earth’s natural resources
o Sustainable sources do not cause significant environmental
o Sustainable sources of energy are solar energy and wind energy
o Non-renewable sources of energy and matter are (fossil fuels) coal, oil,
(minerals) aluminum, copper
o Renewable sources of energy: hydroelectric, geothermal, biomass,
solar and wind
Environmental externality
o Is a harmful environmental, economic, or social cost that is not
accounted for in the price of goods and services
What (and why) are the barriers to achieving sustainability
o Population growth
o Technology
o Poverty
o Environmental externalities
o Resistance to change