Graphic Organizer for Waste Water Filtration Lab Introduction:
Paragraph 1: Water Use
Why do we have a shortage of clean water in the
How do we use water for in stream use? How do
we use water for off stream use?
What is surface water? What is ground water?
What is the water table?
What percent of water is used for farming?
What is irrigation of crops? What are the different
Sources of information used in this paragraph-APA format (see bottom of page):
Paragraph 2: Water pollution
What is water pollution?
How does the Hudson River Case Study (Botkin
and Keller, 2010, p. 399) exemplify water pollution
and remediation efforts?
What is the difference between point source
pollution and non-point source pollution?
What is surface water pollution and what is
ground water pollution?
What are water borne diseases, and what bacteria
is used as measure of disease potential?
What is dissolved oxygen? What is biochemical
oxygen demand? How are they related? How does
dissolved oxygen effect ecosystems?
What were your finding on the sewage lab? What
happens to biochemical oxygen demand and
dissolved oxygen when excess sewage/waste is
added to an aquatic system?
Sources of information used in this paragraph- APA format(see bottom of page):
Paragraph 3: Eutrophication (water pollution + biogeochemical nutrient cycling)
What is Eutrophication? How does it most
frequently occur (link to agriculture)?
Describe the steps (in sentence form) that occur
when excess Nitrogen and Phosphorus enter into
aquatic systems, causing Eutrophication.
For your first trail of this lab, you tested for 3
compounds containing nitrogen: ammonia, nitrite
and nitrate in waste water that excess synthetic,
inorganic fertilizer in it. Which of the 3 nitrogen
compounds was the highest?
How do Biogeochemical cycles of Nitrogen,
Phosphorus and Carbon connect soil and water
(abiotic) systems within an ecosystem?
Sources of information used in this paragraph:
Paragraph 4: Water treatment
Septic tanks are usually used in rural areas (farm
land) How does a septic tank work?
How does a water treatment plant work?
What are primary and secondary treatment?
What does chlorine treatment do?
What happens at the filtration step in the water
treatment process? How does soil act as a water
filter for rain water percolating through?
What is percolation? How it affected by
permeability and porosity of the soil?
How would soil texture and composition affect
fertilizer run off into aquatic systems (such as
Sources of information used in this paragraph:
Paragraph 5: Your Experimental Design
What is remediation? What is phytoremediation?
What is Bioremediation? How do biotic (living)
affect abiotic (non-living things), such as soil and
water? (think nutrients)
What will you use to build your water filter? Why?
What is the purpose of your experiment? What is
the essential question you are trying to answer?
What is your independent variable? What is your
dependent variable?
What is your hypothesis? (must be an “If… then…”
Sources of information used in this paragraph:
APA format
All your paragraphs should have sources cited in APA format. That means that there are in text citations,
and a works cited page at the end of the paper. There are a lot of rules when it comes to APA format, so
here is simplified cheat sheet for the basics.
Works cited page (belongs at the back of the paper)
Electronic resource/website
Contributors' names (Last edited date). Title of resource. Retrieved from http://Web
address for resource
Book resource
Author, I. N. (Year). Title of book, pages. Location: Publisher.
Botkin, D.B., Keller, E.A. (2011). Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet
eighth edition. Danvers, Massachusettes.
In Text citations (You have to cite in your paper which resource you obtained the information)
According to author (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially
when it was their first time" (p. 199).
Writing (author, year of publication)
Or if it’s a book or article with many pages…
Writing (author, year of publication, page(s))
Biogeochemical cycling is how chemicals cycle through life and the earth (Miller,
2010, p. 249)
1 author: (Miller, 2011, p.249)
2-5 authors: (Botkin and Keller, 2011, p. 401)
More than 5 authors: (Freeland et al., 1998)
Below is are more detailed examples/works cited (as they are formatted on your works cited page).
These came from the University of Oregon website, which you can look up too.
Sample List of References
Citation Example
Bankes, P., Boss, J., Cochran, A., Duemer, L., McCrary, J., & Salazar, D. (2001). Censorship and
Type of Citation
Journal article retrieved from
restraint: Lessons learned from the Catalyst.College Student Journal, 35, 335-338. Retrieved
August 14, 2003, from Ebsco Academic Search Elite database.
an electronic database, 6 or
fewer authors, continuous
Chafee, Z., Jr. (1962). Freedom of speech and press. In W. S. Dowden & T. N. Marsh (Eds.), The
heritage of freedom: Essays on the rights of free men (pp. 140-156). New York: Harper.
Chapter in an edited book
Dennis, E. E., & Vanden Heuvel, J. (1991). Emerging voices: East European media in transition:
A report of the Gannett Foundation Task Force on Press Freedom in Eastern Europe (2nd ed.).
New York: Gannett Foundation Media Center.
FCC ruling to stifle debate, critics say. (2003, June 13). The Buffalo News,p. C1.
Newspaper article, unsigned
Foerstel, H. N. (Ed.). (1997). Free expression and censorship in America: An
encyclopedia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Encyclopedia or dictionary
Freedom of the press: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the
Committee on the Judiciary, Senate, 92d Cong., 1 (1972).
Government hearing, whole
Hardt, H. (2000). Communication is freedom: Karl Marx on press freedom and
censorship. Javnost: The Public, 7(4), 85-99.
Journal article, pagination
restarts with each issue
Jayasekera, R. (2003, June 11). Gives with one hand, takes away with the other. Index on
Censorship. Retrieved August 9, 2003, from
Article retrieved from web
Jeffords, S., & Rabinovitz, L. (Eds.). (1994). Seeing through the media: The Persian Gulf
war. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Edited book
Paretsky, S. (2003, June 2). The new censorship. New Statesman, 759, 18-20.
Magazine article
Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next Generation: Conflicts
between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association.
(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 364932)
ERIC Document
Project censored. (n.d.). Retrieved August 9, 2003, from http://www.projectcensored.org/
Entire web site, no date of
Sanders, B. (Producer/Director). (1987). Making the news fit [Motion picture]. (Available from
The Cinema Guild, 130 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016-7038)
Film or video
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