grl53059-sup-0002-Neuzilts01

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Table S1. Properties of argillaceous formations considered in the analysis
a
K, ms-1 b
[Lab]
(In situ)
[6.0x10-15 –
3.0x10-14] V
[3.0x10-14 6.0x10-14] H
(< 10-15 –
5.8x10-14) H
(4.0x10-15 –
3.0x10-14) H
SS, m-1 c
[Lab]
(In situ)
[1.0x10-6 –
3.0x10-5]
(1.0x10-6 –
3.0x10-5)
4.0x10-7 –
1.3x10-6
[1.5x10-7 –
2.0x10-5]
[2.0x10-7 –
3.0x10-5]
1.3x10-7 –
6.9x10-7
n
K/ SS,
m2s-1
Proposed
mechanism(s)
for anomaly
Sources consulted
0.05 –
0.14
7.7x10-10
– 1.5x10-7
Tectonic
compression;
irreversible
visco-plastic
compaction
Nationale Genossenschaft für
die Lagerung radioaktiver
Abfälle [2002]; Bruel and Küpfer
[2002]
0.001 –
0.11
2.3x10-7 5.8x10-9
Unburdening by
deglaciation; gas
generation
Intera [2011]; Nasir et al. [2011];
Normani and Sykes [2012];
Khader and Novakowski [2014];
Neuzil and Provost [2014]
[2.4x10-16 –
1.5x10-12] V
[9.1x10-15 –
7.6x10-13] H
(5.0x10-15 –
2.1x10-12) H
1.0x10-14 –
1.0x10-12
(1.3x10-12 –
3.3x10-11) H
[1.5x10-6 –
3.0x10-5]
(1.0x10-7 –
6.0x10-6)
1.3x10-6 –
1.9x10-6
0.14 –
0.18
7.7x10-7 –
d
5.3x10-9
Head decrease
in bounding
aquifers;
osmosis
Zhang and Rothfuchs [2004];
Cosenza et al. [2002]; Escoffier et
al. [2005]; Delay et al. [2006];
Delay et al. [2007]; Distinguin
and Lavanchy [2007]; Gonçalvès
et al. [2004]
(4.5x10-6 7.0x10-4)
4.1x10-6 –
1.8x10-5
[1.7x10-5 –
2.4x10-4]
(4.1x10-6 –
2.6x10-5)
8.0x10-6 –
3.8x10-5
[7.9x10-7 –
5.3x10-5]
(3.3x10-6 –
1.5x10-5)
8.0x10-6 –
1.0x10-5
0.25 –
0.37
7.2x10-8 8.0x10-6
N/A
López Geta et al. [1995];
Hueckel et al. [1998]
0.30 –
0.45
2.6x10-8 –
2.5x10-6
N/A
Smith et al. [2013]
0.30 –
0.32
1.0x10-9 –
1.3x10-8
Unburdening by
erosion
Bredehoeft et al. [1983]; Neuzil
[1993]
Location; unit name(s); age(s)
Lithology
Pressure
regime
Thick
-ness,
m
Benken, Canton Zürich,
Switzerland;
Opalinus Clay, Arieten Marl;
Jurassic
Claystone,
marl
Anomalous
overpressure
135
Bruce County, Ontario, Canada;
Gull River, Coboconk, Kirkfield,
Sherman Fall, Cobourg, Blue
Mountain, Georgian Bay,
Queenston, Manitoulin, and Cabot
Head Formations; Ordovician,
Lower Silurian
Bure, Meuse, France; CallovoOxfordian Argillite; Jurassic
Shale and
minor
carbonates;
argillaceous
limestone
Anomalous
underpressure
350
Claystone
Anomalous
overpressure
145
Burgos, Spain; Formation Dueñas,
Formation San Pedro; Oligocene,
Miocene
Clay, minor
carbonates,
evaporites
Upward
gradient
550
Esterhazy, Saskatchewan, Canada;
Pierre Shale, 1st and 2nd Speckled
Shales, Belle Fourche and Joli
Fou Formations; Upper
Cretaceous
Claystone
Upward
gradient
380
[1.0x10-12 –
e
2.0x10-11] V
Hayes, South Dakota, U.S.A.;
Pierre Shale; Upper Cretaceous
Claystone
Anomalous
underpressure
320
[6.0x10-14 –
1.0x10-11] V
(9.0x10-16 –
1.0x10-10) H
1.0x10-14 –
1.0x10-13
1
Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan;
Wakkanai and Koetoi Formations;
Miocene, Pliocene
Siliceous and
diatomaceous
mudstone
Downward
gradient
1300
1000?
Mecsek, Hungary; Boda
Claystone; Upper Permian
Claystone
“No
indication
for over- or
underpressures”
800
Mol, Antwerp, Belgium; Boom
Clay; Lower Oligocene
Silty clay
Slight
upward
gradient
90
Taber, British Columbia, Canada;
Upper Mannville and Colorado
Groups; Lower to Upper
Cretaceous
Shale and
argillaceous
siltstone with
thin
sandstones
Marl and
argillite
Anomalous
underpressure
700
Upward
gradient
240
Clay marl
Anomalous
underpressure
800 950
Tournemire, Aveyron, France;
Domerian and Toarcian Series;
Lower Jurassic
Wellenberg, Canton Nidwalden,
Switzerland; Palfris Formation,
Vitznau Marl; Lower Cretaceous
i
[6.0x10-13 –
5.0x10-10] H,V
(1.0x10-12 –
f
1.0x10-5)
-11
2.0x10 –
1.0x10-8
[1.0x10-16 –
g
1.0x10-13]
-13
(1.0x10 –
h
1.0x10-8) H,V
1.0x10-10 –
1.0x10-8
[6.0x10-13 –
1.3x10-11] V
[2.8x10-12 –
2.8x10-11] H
(1.6x10-12 –
1.7x10-11) H,V
[1.7x10-15 j
4.7x10-13] H, V
[1.8x10-6 –
1.6x10-5]
(3.0x10-6 –
1.5x10-5)
1.2x10-5 –
4.6x10-4
0.34 –
0.66
4.4x10-8 8.3x10-4
N/A
Kurikame et al. [2008]; Sanada et
al. [2008]; Hama et al. [2007];
Hosoya et al. [2009]
1.3x10-7 –
1.8x10-7
0.01 –
0.02
5.6x10-4 –
7.8x10-2
N/A
Fedor et al. [2008]; Kovács
[2001]; Mazurek et al. [2003]
[8.1x10-6 –
1.8x10-5]
8.0x10-6 –
4.0x10-5
0.30 0.40
4.0x10-8 2.1x10-6
N/A
Yu et al. [2011]; De Cannière et
al. [2004]; ONDRAF/NIRAS
[2001]
1.4x10-6 4.1x10-6
0.15 –
k
0.25
4.2x10-10
– 3.4x10-7
Unburdening by
deglaciation and
long-term
erosion
Young et al. [1964]; Toth and
Corbet [1986]; Corbet and Bethke
[1992]; Neuzil [1994]; Bekele et
al. [2003]
[1.0x10-14 –
6.0x10-13] H,V
(1.4x10-14 –
2.3x10-11) H
2.0x10-12 –
l
2.0x10-10
-13
(1.0x10 –
m
1.0x10-12) H
[5.0x10-7 –
4.5x10-5]
4.3x10-7 –
1.8x10-6
0.06 –
0.08
1.1x10-6 –
4.7x10-4
N/A
Boisson et al. [1998]; Boisson et
al. [2001]; Bonin [1998]; Mügler
et al. [2004]
[3.9x10-7 –
4.7x10-6]
1.3x10-7 –
3.0x10-7
0.009 –
0.037
3.3x10-7 7.7x10-6
Unburdening by
glacial erosion
and deglaciation
Nationale Genossenschaft für
die Lagerung radioaktiver
Abfälle [1997]; Rivera [1996]
a
Properties used in the analysis and their source shown bolded.
H = along bedding; V = across bedding.
c
SS values were calculated from porosity using the relation of Konikow and Neuzil [2007].
d
Revil et al. (2005) determined a K/SS for the Callovo-Oxfordian of ~ 2x10-7 m s-1.
e
K values may be too large because of insufficient confining load during tests [Smith et al., 2013].
f
Fault dominated [Kurikame et al., 2008].
b
2
g
Core not fully saturated [Fedor et al., 2008].
Bulk rock is fractured [Kovács, 2001].
i
Boom Clay thickness excludes ~ 10 m at formation base that is higher K.
j
Taber K values are from “argillaceous rocks from the lower Cretaceous of western Canada” [Young et al., 1964] cored in the vicinity of Taber.
k
Taber porosity from Neuzil [1994] estimate.
l
“Hydraulically active” fractures noted in tunnel [Boisson et al., 1998, 2001].
m
Wellenberg K range is derived from a K-depth model generated from measured K values in boreholes SB1, SB3, SB4, SB4a/v, and SB4a/s (Nationale
Genossenschaft für die Lagerung radioaktiver Abfälle, 1997].
h
3
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