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Chapter 19:

China

s Contacts with the Outside World

C H 1 8 P R E

V

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R e v i i e w t h e d i i r e c t i i o n s w i i t h t t h e m

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A s s i i g n h a l l f f o f f t h e s t u d e n t s t o c o m p l l e t e e a c h s i i d e o f f t h e

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c h a r t t .

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W h e n s t u d e n t t s h a v e c o m p l l e t e d t h e i i r r l l i i s t s ,

, d i i r e c t t t h e m t o f f i i n d s o m e o n e w h o h a s a r g u e d t h e o p p o s i i t t e p o i i n t o f f v i i e w a n d t o a d d t h a t t p e r s o n ’

’ s a r g u m e n t t s t o t t h e o t h e r s i i d e o f f t h e i i r

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c h a r t t s

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Then explain that in this lesson, they will learn that throughout China’s history there has been an argument about whether to have an open- or closed-door policy toward foreigners. Sometimes China opened its doors to foreign trade and visitors. At other times it slammed them shut and tried to isolate itself from the rest of the world..

19.2 Foreign Contacts Under the Tang Dynasty 206-7

The influences of Traders and Visitors

o

Chang’an – China’s capital

o

Silk road unsafe at first

o

Tang’s made it safer by controlling much of

Central Asia

o

Arabs, Turks, Persians, Tibetans, Indians, Jews,

Koreans, and Japanese came to visit

o

New ideas and products arrived

o

They even started to sit in chairs

o

Buddhism became a major part of Chinese life

Changing Attitudes

o

Toward end of tang dynasty foreigners and beliefs became less welcome

o

Foreign merchants became unwelcome

o

Buddhist monasteries became too wealthy

o

By the en of the dynasty trade shifted from the

Silk Road to the seas (compass + shipbuilding)

19.3 Foreign Contacts Under the Mongols 208-209

KUBLAI KHAN 1

ST

Mongolian EMPEROR

Empire stretched across Asia

Travel and trade expanded as never before

Thriving Trade and Cultural Exchange

o

Mongols encouraged cultural exchange

o

Silk road safer and easier to travel

o

Sea trade flourished

Diamonds from India

Ginger, cotton from Ceylon

o

Dadu their capital is today’s Beijing

o

Jamal al-Din Persian astronomer intro better instruments

The Role of Foreigners in China

o

Foreigners enjoyed high status

Did not have to pay taxes

o

Foreigners were named to rule Chinese

o

Marco Polo took 3½ years and 5,000 miles to arrive in Dadu

He wrote about his experiences

o

Chinese were at bottom of social order

o

Foreign Gov. officials were harsh + dishonest

19.4 Foreign Contacts under the Ming Dynasty 210-211

THE MING dynasty rebelled against Mongols and ruled form 1368 to 1644

They tried to isolate China

Tributaries and Maritime Expeditions

China the oldest, largest, most civilized and the most important

Tributaries had to kowtow ( 3 times)

In return for tribute officials received gifts

Zheng He – “Admiral of the Western Seas”

7 expeditions from 1405 to 1433

300 ships, 27,000 men, enough food

Largest – 4 decks, 9 masts w/ 12 sails + 12 watertight compartments

30 of the places became tributaries

Turning Inward

Zheng He died in 1434, new Emperor

Mongols were attempting invasion again

Expeditions were stopped

Money diverted to repel Mongols

New trade and travel restrictions imposed

Scholar-officials created a complex government bureaucracy – very rigid

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