Ocean Science Experiment Form Scientist:______________________________ Title of Activity_________________________ Question: What do I want to find out? Hypothesis: What do I think we will find out? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _______________ Procedure: How will I find out? (List step by step) 1. _____________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________ Result: What actually happened? _____________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Conclusions: What did I learn? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________ How Polluted Water Gets Clean Again Experiment Purpose: To demonstrate how natural materials in our environment act as natural filters to clean contaminates from water. Vocabulary Pollution – An unnatural addition to an environment or habitat. Oil is a pollutant to soil and water. Chemicals are pollutants to soil and water as well. Runoff – rainwater that flows into lakes and streams instead of soaking into the ground. Sediment – particles of soil Background: Water quality is a concern for all of us. Since we use the same water over and over again in our water cycle, communities must provide clean drinking water for their citizens. With all of our cars, fertilizers, garbage, and other chemical wastes, this process, which happens naturally in nature, must be reproduced in a controlled environment. In an ocean environment, runoff from streams and rivers bring sediment into the ocean. Too much fresh water and sediment brought into the bays and estuaries can upset the balance of the marine life in these areas. Small fish that are hatched in these shallow waters can not survive these changes. Fresh water that is contaminated with sediment, can suffocate fish, and when it sinks to the bottom of the ocean, it covers the plants and blocks the sunlight that they need. This investigation simulates two methods used to solve this problem. One methods traps the water in holding ponds where the sediment is given time to settle to the bottom before the water is released into the river or ocean. The 2nd method provides enough distance between the farms and cities and the river to allow the land to filter the sediment from the water. Materials Needed: 2 plastic funnels Four jars Food coloring Gravel or pebbles Sand Soil Dirt Water Procedure: 1. Mix soil and water in one jar. This water is muddy with sediment. Mix green food coloring and water in the 2nd jar. The water should be as green as possible. This represents dissolved contamination in water. 2. Place one funnel over a collecting jar and fill ii with gravel. Place the other funnel on the last jar, and fill it with wet sand (wet sand keeps the sand from going directly into the jar). 3. Slowly pour some of the muddy water in the funnel with the gravel. Let it seep into the jar. Did the water change? Now pour some of the muddy water into the funnel with the sand. Let it seep into the jar. Did the water change? Pour some of the food coloring and water in the other funnel. Did the water change? 4. Repeat the entire procedure with the colored water. Record their findings. Discussion Questions (answer in Conclusions section): Which filter sand, or gravel, cleaned the water most effectively of the mud? Why? Which filter cleaned the colored water most effectively? What does a filter do? What other types of filters could you use in the funnel (cotton, coffee filters, charcoal)? Buoyancy of Salt Water Experiment Guiding Question: What does the word “buoyancy” mean? It means having the ability or tendency to float. Why is it easier to swim in salt water than in fresh water? Discuss with students any experience they have had swimming in an ocean and compare it to swimming in a pool. Objects float more easily in salt water because salt water is “thicker” or denser. There is 1 ounce of salt in every 35 ounces of water in the ocean. In the Dead Sea the water is so salty that when the water is evaporated by the sun, the salt that is left forms hard white columns and lumps. Materials Needed: Two identical glasses or clear plastic cups Tap water Salt water (prepare some ahead of time by adding 1 tablespoon of salt to 1 cup of water) Make sure that all of the salt dissolves. Two fresh eggs Data collection sheet Procedure: 1. Fill one cup with tap water and the second cup with an equal amount of salt water. 2. Have child predict what will happen when you place an egg in the tap water. He/she should fill this in on the collection sheet. 3. Place the egg in the tap water. What happens? Record the results. 4. Have child predict what will happen when you put the other egg in the salt water. Have him/her record the predictions. 5. Place the egg in the cup with salt water. What happens? Child should record the results. If the egg doesn’t float add more salt. 6. Have child write their conclusions on the collection sheet. Extensions: Try adding more salt. The egg should float higher in the cup. Ask students how the amount of salt in water would affect a person’s ability to swim.