Experimental Study Guide 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. What is an experimental design with two or more independent variables called? Realize that using a factorial design allows you to look at interaction effects, which can give you an enriched understanding of an effect. Be able to identify and tell me how many Independent and Dependent variables an experiment has. Be able to express the design of an experiment (e.g. 2x2) Be able to diagram an experiment in the box format Be able to tell me how many conditions an experiment has Be able to tell me how many main effects and interactions are possible for an experimental design. Be able to tell me how many main effects and interactions are likely to be significant for a given experimental design. Be able to tell me what a graph might look like that would show the following. 1. A 2x2 experiment with no main effects but an interaction. 2. A 2x2 experiment with two main effects but no interaction 3. A 2x2 experiment with two main effects and an interaction 4. A 2x2 experiment with a main effect of the variable plotted on the x axis, but not within the graph and no interaction. 5. A 2x2 experiment with a main effect of the variable plotted within the graph, but not on the x axis and no interaction. 6. A 2x2 experiment with no main effects and no interactions. What does the term higher order interaction refer to? What is it called when there is a change in behavior that can be attributed to different levels of one independent variable in a factorial design? What are the four reasons to use a within subjects design What is progressive error? Explain in terms of fatigue and practice effects. Explain the difference between balancing using a subject x subject vs. an across subject design Know how to perform and be able to identify block randomization and ABBA techniques for controlling progressive error. Also explain under what conditions each technique would be preferred. For which design are the two techniques from the previous question used? Know how to perform, and be able to identify, the all-possible-orders, Latin-square, and systematicsequential-rotation techniques. Be able to identify some pros and cons for each technique. For which design are these balancing techniques used. Be able to identify how many possible sequences could exist for an experiment with a given number of levels of the independent variable. (i.e. an experiment with four level of the IV would have 4! possible sequences. How many sequences would that yield?). What are some limitations of the within subjects design? Who was a big advocate of the Small N design? What are some advantages of the Small N design Explain how sometimes looking at individual subjects’ performance in different conditions can sometimes provide a different picture of the results then looking at averages. Who uses Small-N designs? What does the B in an ABA design refer to? Be able to identify and explain how to implement the following types of Small-N designs. ABA ABA with variations of the B condition AB Multiple Baseline. Are statistics necessary for Small N designs? Why is it that although the AB design does not control well for time effects that it is sometimes necessary to be used for ethical reasons? Is external validity high for Small N designs? Be able to identify physical extraneous variables What are the techniques for controlling extraneous variables? Why would elimination and constancy be preferred over balancing of physical variables? Define social extraneous variables 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. Be able to identify demand characteristics versus experimenter bias. What type of social variable was Martin Orne examining in his studies? Explain various ways that Orne studied this problem. Explain two ways to control for demand characteristics? Explain how each works. Under what conditions would each be preferred? Is a placebo effect due to demand characteristics or experimenter bias? What type of social variable was Robert Rosenthal examining in his studies? Explain various ways that Rosenthal studied this problem. Explain how to control for experimenter bias. How does this process work?