Concept Check 10.5

Chapter Ten Concept Checks
Concept Check 10.1
Check your understanding of substance-related definitions by stating whether the
following case summaries describe (a) use, (b) intoxication, (c) abuse, or (d) dependence.
1. Joe is a member of the high school football team and is out celebrating a big win. Joe
doesn’t believe in drinking alcohol, but he doesn’t mind taking a hit of marijuana
every now and then. Because Joe had such a good game, he decides to smoke
marijuana to celebrate. Despite his great performance in the game, Joe is easily
irritated, laughing one minute, and yelling the next. The more Joe boasts about his
stats, the more difficult it is to understand him. ____________
2. Jill routinely drinks diet cola. Instead of having coffee in the morning, she heads for
the fridge. Another habit of Jill’s is having a cigarette immediately after dinner. If
for some reason Jill is unable to have her diet cola in the morning or her cigarette in
the evening, she is not dependent on them and can still function normally. _________
3. Steve is a 23-year-old college student who started drinking heavily when he was 16.
Instead of getting drunk at weekend parties, Steve drinks a moderate amount every
night. In high school Steve would become drunk after about 6 beers; now his
tolerance has more than doubled. Steve claims alcohol relieves the pressures of
college life. He once attempted to quit drinking, but he had chills, fever, diarrhea,
nausea and vomiting, and body aches and pains. ____________
4. Jan is 32 and has just been fired from her third job in 1 year. She has been absent
from work 2 days a week for the past 3 weeks. Not only did her boss telephone her
and find her speech slurred, but she was also seen at a local pub in a drunken state
during regular office hours. During her previous job, she came to work with alcohol
on her breath and was unable to conduct herself in an orderly fashion. When
confronted about her problems, Jan went home and tried to forget the situation by
drinking more. ____________
Concept Check 10.2
Determine whether the following statements about depressants are True (T) or False (F).
1. ___ Alcohol is a depressant although it initially stimulates.
2. ___ All mothers who drink during pregnancy give birth to children with fetal alcohol
3. ___ Barbiturates such as Valium were initially used to relieve anxiety and induce
4. ___ Benzodiazepines like Amytal were used to induce sleep.
5. ___ Humans metabolize alcohol with an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase.
Concept Check 10.3
Match the following descriptions with their corresponding stimulants: (a) opioids, (b)
amphetamines, (c) cocaine, (d) hallucinogens, (e) nicotine, (f) caffeine.
1. These drugs, including LSD, influence perception, distorting feelings, sights, sounds,
and smells. ____________
2. These create feelings of elation and vigor and reduce fatigue. They are prescribed to
people with narcolepsy and ADHD. ____________
3. These lead to euphoria, drowsiness, and slowed breathing. These substances are
analgesics, relieving pain. Users tend to be secretive, preventing a great deal of
research in this area. ____________
4. This substance causes euphoria, appetite loss, and increased alertness. Dependence
appears after years of use. Mothers addicted to this have the potential to give birth to
irritable babies. ____________
5. This is the most common psychoactive substance because it is legal, elevates mood,
and decreases fatigue. It’s readily available in many beverages. ____________
6. This substance stimulates the nervous system and relieves stress. The DSM-IV-TR
describes withdrawal symptoms instead of an intoxication pattern. ____________
Concept Check 10.4
Indicate whether these statements about the causes of substance-related disorders are
True (T) or False (F).
1. ___ Research with both animals and humans indicates that substance abuse in
general is affected by our genes, though not one particular gene.
2. ___ To some extent, all psychoactive drugs provide a pleasurable experience,
creating positive reinforcement.
3. ___ Negative reinforcement is involved in the continuance of drug use because drugs
often provide escape from pain, stress, panic, etc.
4. ___ The expectancy effect is illustrated when a person who expects to be less
inhibited when drinking alcohol is given a placebo and acts/feels normally.
5. ___ The media and parental influences have no effect on adolescent drug use; it is
solely a peer pressure factor.
Concept Check 10.5
Determine whether you understand how treatments for substance-related disorders work
by matching the examples with the following terms: (a) dependent, (b) cross-tolerant, (c)
agonist substitution, (d) antagonist (e) relapse prevention, (f) controlled drinking, (g)
aversion therapy.
1. Methadone is used to help heroin addicts kick their habit in a method called
2. Heroin and methadone are ____________, which means they affect the same
neurotransmitter receptors.
3. Unfortunately, the heroin addict may become permanently ____________ on
4. ____________ drugs block or counteract the effects of psychoactive drugs and are
sometimes effective in treating addicts.
5. This controversial treatment for alcoholism, ____________, involves drinking in
6. In ____________, substance use is paired with something extremely unpleasant (like
alcohol and vomiting with Antabuse).
7. The ____________ model involves therapy that helps individuals remove
ambivalence about stopping their drug use by examining their beliefs about the
positive and negative aspects of drug use.
Answers to Concept Checks
1. b
2. a
1. T
2. F (only some do)
3. F (benzodiazepines)
1. d
2. b
3. a
4. c
5. f
1. T
2. T
3. T
4. F (they would still act uninhibited) 5. F (all have an effect)
1. c
2. b
3. a
4. d
3. d
4. c
5. f
4. F (barbiturates)
5. T
6. e
6. g
7. e