Explain the connotative differences among the members of each of the following groups of words. Then, make up sentences that use the words in the groups accurately. As an alternative exercise, make up sentences in which some of the words are conspicuously misused. 1. corpulent, plump, obese, pudgy, heavy set, fleshy, fat, paunchy, burly, overweight, roly-poly, bulky, portly, beefy 2. mansion, abode, dwelling, domicile, residence, house, home, habitat 3. hurl, throw, pitch, chuck, toss, fling, cast5 4. friendly, open, sociable, jovial, approachable, affable, chummy, ingratiating, companionable, genial 5. arrogant, stuck-up, conceited, cocky, vain, proud, self-satisfied, egotistical, overbearing, supercilious 6. cheat, phony, con man, fraud, charlatan, operator, crook, imposter, quack, swindler 7. dislike, resent, lament, hate, scorn, disapprove, decry, deplore, oppose, regret 8. naked, nude, stripped, bare, unclothed, in the buff 9. bizarre, singular, far out, outlandish, off the wall, curious, odd, unusual, extraordinary, remarkable, noteworthy, strange, eerie, 10. grasp, clutch, hold, cling, clamp, clasp, grip 11. titter, giggle, chuckle, laugh, guffaw, roar, snicker, snigger, cackle 12. saving, tight, miserly, frugal, economical, careful, penurious, thrifty, penny-pinching, budget-minded, prudent, mean 13. shrewd, calculating, clever, sly, adroit, knowing, astute, cunning, skillful, smooth, slick 14. dilapidated, ramshackle, ruinous, neglected, tumbledown, deteriorate, shabby, run down, derelict, tatty, seedy 15. honest, straight, on the level, veracious, guileless, unaffected, artless, genuine, candid, truthful, sincere 16. buff, enthusiast, amateur, fan, hobbyist, bug, connoisseur 17. pig-headed, stubborn, obdurate, adamant, stiff-necked, rigid, obstinate, unalterable, changeless, dogged, steadfast 18. sullen, taciturn, glum, withdrawn, down, silent, reticent, wordless 19. concise, pointed, laconic, terse, bare bones, economical, pithy, compressed, brief, boiled down 20. steal purloin, pinch, rip off, filch, embezzle, burglarize, rob, hold up, snatch, grab, help oneself to, appropriate Often two words roughly “mean” the same thing, except, that one has an unfavorable, the other a favorable, connotation. Thus, although, you may like to think of yourself as an idealist, people who do not sympathize with your attitude might call you a dreamer. For the following pairs of terms, write short expressions of why you might like to be described by one term but not by the other. Slender/ skinny High-strung/ freaked out Trusting/ gullible Firm/ stubborn Reckless/ adventurous Flexible/ wishy-washy Relaxed/ flaked out hypocritical/ diplomatic hard worker/ workaholic assertive/ pushy playboy/ eligible bachelor original/ weird plodding/ methodical scholar/ bookworm CONNOTATIONS: PERSONAL AND GENERAL; THE USES OF CONNOTATION A study has shown that the following nouns and adjectives are among most frequently used by English poets in the past five hundred years. The part of the basic vocabulary of poetry. How many of them posses particularly strong connotations today? Why have poets made extensive use of such terms. Good, great, day, God, heart, king, life, lord, love, man, thing, soul, youth, long, light, spirit, cruel, dear, fair, high, old, poor, true, beauty, death, eye, fortune, gold, hand, heaven, lady, pain, word, world, earth, bright, dark, happy, new, rich, blood, fire, grace, name, nature, power, sin, son, sun, tear, year, soft, hour, friendly, joy, divine, proud, tender, vain, art, breast, fate, flower, hour, land, maid, sky, song, virtue, deep, dim, holy, child, father, hope, mother, prayer, sea, star, white, black, green, bird, moon, nothing, stone, tree, water, wind What are the present connotations of the following terms? Compare answers with the answers of others. How can you explain the differences/similarities among the responses? Welfare, state, leftist, censorship, brainwashing, hippie, astrology, racist, thermonuclear warfare, executive, astronaut, cult, concentration camp, free market, police state, law and order, conservation, defense What is the difference in connotation between slum and ghetto? Trace earlier history of the word ghetto in the Oxford English Dictionary and then try to account for its present application, especially in the United States. How does the term inner city relate to these words?