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Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Sheraton Hotel, Denver, Colorado
February 27 – March 2, 2011
New Oil Foamer Technology to Treat
Oil-loaded Wells and Enhance Oil
and Gas Production
Stella Debord, Scott Lehrer, Carlene Means, Simon Crosby
Baker Hughes Inc.
Agenda
1. Introduction
•
Life cycle of a well
•
Benefit of foamer application in gas wells
•
Current foamer technology and gap
2. New oil foamer development
3. Successful oil foamer application
4. Conclusions
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
2
Flow Regime Change of a Well
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
3
Benefit of Foamer Application
Daily Production - P Hopkins 4
Increased
Production
(100M SCF/day * $3.50 - $22.50 foam)* 365 * 100 wells=
$12MM/y incremental revenue
Daily Rate
1050
1000
950
900
850
800
750
700
650
600
550
Gas
DryVol
Water
Oil
OilWater
Foamer Added
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
5/1/2005
3/31/2005
3/1/2005
1/30/2005
12/30/2004
11/30/2004
10/30/2004
9/30/2004
8/31/2004
7/31/2004
7/1/2004
5/31/2004
5/1/2004
4/1/2004
3/1/2004
1/31/2004
12/31/2003
12/1/2003
11/1/2003
10/1/2003
9/1/2003
8/1/2003
7/2/2003
6/2/2003
5/2/2003
4/2/2003
3/2/2003
1/31/2003
1/1/2003
150
100
50
0
Date
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
4
How Do Foamers Work?
Without
foamer
With
foamer
V  Vt
V  Vt
Vt = 1.593[σ1/4(ρl - ρg)1/4] /(ρg)1/2
• Foamer reduces critical velocity (Vt) that is needed to lift
the fluid up the production tubing by reducing the density
and surface tension of liquid
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
5
Gap in Current Foamer Technology
API gravity
55
Condensate
Traditional water
based foamers
foamer
45
????
25
20
50
100
Brine cut,%
•
Water based foamers are cost effective deliquification technology.
•
Condensate foamer can treat condensate.
•
Traditional foamers do not foam crude oils. At best, it is not cost
effective.
6
Requirements for Oil Foamer Development
 Identify appropriate chemistry to foam crude oil
•
Formulated for different application methods
•
Ensure chemical stability in well bore environment
•
Pose no impact on integrity of asset
•
Perform in wide range of oils
7
Oil Foamers for Different Applications
Oil foamer A
Oil foamer B
Gas lift application?
Yes *
No
Capillary approved up
to
300 F
200 F
* Oil foamer A passed gunking test.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
8
Impact on Asset Integrity Was Evaluated
• Verified material compatibility using
common materials used in assets
• Metals – Not corrosive to aluminum, copper, mild
steel, SS304, SS316
• Plastics – Compatible with Teflon, HD polyethylene,
linear Polyethylene, HD polypropylene
• Elastomers – Compatible with Viton, Hypalon, EPDM
rubber
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
9
Candidate Evaluation Process
•
•
Dynamic foam column tests simulate both batch and continuous
treatment
Tested at system temperature and production rate by controlling
flow rate
10
Foamer Reduces Density Significantly
1200
Volume, mL
1000
800
Start to
unload
600
400
200
0
0
250
500
750
1000
1500
Oil foamer A concentration, ppm
•
Foamers expand the volume of fluids significantly, i.e. the
reduction of density of fluids.
•
Temperature and flow rate were set to simulate the well conditions.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
11
Oil Foamers Evaluated in Different Samples
Well #1
Well #2
Well #3
Well #4
Well #5
Well #6
1630
600
850
50
340
315
20
30
90
50
185
270
30
33.5
32
40
34.5
36.3
137
192
133
300
183
168
No
Oil
foamer B
Yes
Oil
foamer A
Yes
Oil
foamer A
No
Oil
foamer A
Yes
Oil
foamer A
Yes
Oil
foamer A
Recommended
foamer dosage, ppm
5,000
2,000
1,000
1,500
2,500
500
Oil foamer effective?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Oil production,
BOPD
Water production,
BWPD
API gravity
Bottom hole
temperature, F
Gas lift application?
Oil foamer tested
•
Oil foamers were evaluated in different samples .
•
The recommended dosage is based on lab tests. The dosage
would be optimized during the field application.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
12
Product Development Summary
Requirements
Method
Check
Novel oil soluble
chemistry
Patent pending

Foamer performance
evaluation
Dynamic foam column tests

Chemical stability
Capillary test and gunking
test

Asset integrity
Material compatibility tests

13
Field Application Proved the Effectiveness of
Oil Foamer
Well Information
Days of production(1)
7 days on/7 days off
Well Depth, feet(2)
13,000
Gas production, Mcf/D
250
Oil production, BOPD
40
Water production, BWPD
40
API gravity, 
40
Bottom hole temperature, F
300
(1) A water based foamer was injected continuously.
(2) The capillary is installed closed to perforation and good mixing of
produced fluids and foamer is expected.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
14
Requirements for Successful Applications
 Determine potential success as a foamer application
•
Well information
•
FOAM modeling
•
Performance evaluation
 Defoamer controls foam issue effectively
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop Denver, Colorado
15
Candidate is Accessed by FOAM Modeling
>>
Vt
V Well flows
Vt >> V Well loaded up
•
Baker Hughes’ proprietary software
•
Calculate gas velocity (V) and gas critical velocity (Vt)
16
Foamer Evaluation to Determine Dosage
1200
Volume, mL
1000
800
Start to
unload
600
400
200
0
0
250
500
750
1000
1500
Oil foamer A concentration, ppm
•
Flow rate and temperature for testing simulate the well condition.
•
The recommended dosage is 1,500 ppm. The dosage needs to be
optimized during field application.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
17
Defoamer Evaluation for Foam Control
25
Crude oil with oil foamer
A
defoamer X 1,500 ppm
Expansion Factor (EF)
20
defoamer X 2,000 ppm
15
10
5
0
0
1
2
3
4
Time (min)
•
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
Defoamer X was most effective product.
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
18
EOG Field Trial Results-Production Data
600
Gas
Oil
100
Mscf/D
400
300
80
Oil Foamer
injected
7/26/10
60
200
40
100
20
0
BOPD
500
120
0
•
Oil foamer dosage was optimized to 750 ppm.
•
Defoamer dosage was optimized to 750 ppm.
•
Rag tests confirmed that defoamer controlled foam issue successfully.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
19
EOG field trial-production data
Before oil
foamer(1)
After oil
foamer
No foamer
at all(2)
Days of production
7
12
4
Gas production,
Mscf/D
122
400
192
Oil production,
BOPD
13
100
24
(1) A water based foamer was injected continuously.
(2) The data was collected after cutting off oil foamer A.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
20
EOG Field Trial Results-Financial Benefit
8000
$ 7146
Revenue, $/day
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
S 1374
1000
0
60 Day Historical
12 Day Trial

The revenue is based on incremental gas and oil production. For
the calculation, 4.00 $/Mcf for gas and 75.00 $/bbl was oil were used.

The 60 day historical revenue is only from when the well was
flowing.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
21
Conclusions
API gravity
55
Condensate
Traditional water
based foamers
foamer
45
New oil foamers
25
20
50
100
Brine cut,%
1. Foamer technology has extended to treat crude oil
2. Lab tests indicate the novel oil foamer would be an excellent
production enhancement solution
3. Successful field trial proves that the new foamer enhances oil and
22
gas production
Acknowledgement
Carlene Means Scott Lehrer
Niell Strickland
Simon Crosby
Jeff Long
Gus Fuentes
23
Copyright
Rights to this presentation are owned by the company(ies) and/or
author(s) listed on the title page. By submitting this presentation to
the Gas Well Deliquification Workshop, they grant to the Workshop,
the Artificial Lift Research and Development Council (ALRDC), and
the Southwestern Petroleum Short Course (SWPSC), rights to:
– Display the presentation at the Workshop.
– Place it on the www.alrdc.com web site, with access to the site to be
as directed by the Workshop Steering Committee.
– Place it on a CD for distribution and/or sale as directed by the
Workshop Steering Committee.
Other use of this presentation is prohibited without the expressed
written permission of the author(s). The owner company(ies) and/or
author(s) may publish this material in other journals or magazines if
they refer to the Gas Well Deliquification Workshop where it was
first presented.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
24
Disclaimer
The following disclaimer shall be included as the last page of a Technical Presentation or
Continuing Education Course. A similar disclaimer is included on the front page of the Gas Well
Deliquification Web Site.
The Artificial Lift Research and Development Council and its officers and trustees, and the Gas
Well Deliquification Workshop Steering Committee members, and their supporting organizations
and companies (here-in-after referred to as the Sponsoring Organizations), and the author(s) of
this Technical Presentation or Continuing Education Training Course and their company(ies),
provide this presentation and/or training material at the Gas Well Deliquification Workshop "as is"
without any warranty of any kind, express or implied, as to the accuracy of the information or the
products or services referred to by any presenter (in so far as such warranties may be excluded
under any relevant law) and these members and their companies will not be liable for unlawful
actions and any losses or damage that may result from use of any presentation as a consequence
of any inaccuracies in, or any omission from, the information which therein may be contained.
The views, opinions, and conclusions expressed in these presentations and/or training materials
are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Sponsoring Organizations. The author is
solely responsible for the content of the materials.
The Sponsoring Organizations cannot and do not warrant the accuracy of these documents
beyond the source documents, although we do make every attempt to work from authoritative
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a service. The Sponsoring Organizations make no representations or warranties, express or
implied, with respect to the presentations and/or training materials, or any part thereof, including
any warrantees of title, non-infringement of copyright or patent rights of others, merchantability, or
fitness or suitability for any purpose.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
25
Capillary Tests for Chemical Integrity
5
Oil foamer A at 300 F
Oil foamer A at 200 F
Before shut-in
Differential pressure(DP), psi
Differential pressure(DP), psi
5
After shut in
4
3
2
1
0
Before shut in
After shut in
4
3
2
1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
0
5
10
15
20
25
Time, hours
Time, hours
• Oil foamer A passed gunking test up to 150 F.
Feb. 27 - Mar. 2, 2011
2011 Gas Well Deliquification Workshop
Denver, Colorado
26
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