Bio I Chp 4 Cell Structures and Functions

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Cell Structures and Functions
Unit 5 – Chapter 4
The Cell Theory
Devised by Matthias Schleiden, Theodor
Schwann, and Rudolf Virchow.
1. _______________________________
_____________.
2. _______________________________
_____________________.
3. _______________________________
_____________________..
The World of Cells
Cell – basic building block of life.
______________– (1665) – observed the
dead cells of cork. He likened them to
cells in a prison….thus coining the name
“cell”.
_______________ – nutrition, digestion,
excretion, secretion, absorption,
biosynthesis, respiration, response,
reproduction.
2 Types of Cell Organization
1.
-
-
-
______________:
Exs.) Bacteria and Cyanobacteria ONLY
smaller and less complex than
eukaryotes
Do not have membranes enclosing cell
parts, therefore NO DISTINCT
NUCLEUS
DNA (genetic material) is on a circular
loop in center of cell
2. _________________:
- includes all cells other than bacteria and
cyanobacteria (prokaryotes)
- Larger and more complex than
prokaryotes
- Have cell parts that are enclosed in
membranes
- HAVE A DISTINCT NUCLEUS THAT
HOUSES THE DNA
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Animal Cell
Section 7-2
Cytoplasm
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Go to
Section:
Cell Membrane
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and
Function
1.
_____________

Nickname: “The Control Center”

Function: holds the DNA

Parts:
1.
2.
3.
4.
_______________: dark spot in the middle of the
nucleus that helps make ribosomes
_______________: controls traffic in/out of
nucleus
_______________: all substances INSIDE the
nucleus
_______________: unraveled chromosomes =
DNA
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Animal Cell
Section 7-2
Cytoplasm
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Go to
Section:
Ribosomes
Cell Membrane
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and
Function
_____________
2.


Function: site where _______________
_________________
Found in all cells, prokaryotic and
eukaryotic
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and
Function
_____________________(ER)
3.


Nickname: “Highway system”
Function: Provides a route for cell
products to move throughout the cell
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Animal Cell
Section 7-2
Cytoplasm
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Rough
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Go to
Section:
Ribosomes
Cell Membrane
Smooth
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum

2 Types:
1. _____________:


2.
Rough appearance because it has
ribosomes attached
Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it
has ribosomes
_____________:


NO ribosomes attached
Function: makes fats or lipids
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Animal Cell
Section 7-2
Cytoplasm
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Rough Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Golgi Complex
Go to
Section:
Ribosomes
Cell Membrane
Smooth Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and
Function
_______________
4.



Nickname: “Shipping department”
Function: packages, modifies, and
transports materials to different locations
inside/outside of the cell
Appearance: stack of pancakes
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Animal Cell
Section 7-2
Cytoplasm
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Rough Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Golgi Bodies
Go to
Section:
Ribosomes
Cell Membrane
Smooth Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and
Function
_____________: circular, but
bigger than ribosomes)
5.


Nickname: “Clean-up Crews”
Function: _________________________
____________________ into particles
the the cell can use, and to destroy old
and diseased cells
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Animal Cell
Section 7-2
Cytoplasm
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Ribosomes
Cell Membrane
Mitochondria
Rough Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Golgi Bodies
Smooth Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and
Function
__________________
6.


Nickname: “The Energy Factory”
Function: ______________________

_____________________________________
_____________________________

ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that
require energy
Animal Cell
Cytoplasm
Nucleolus
Nucleus
Ribosomes
Cell Membrane
Mitochondria
Rough Endoplasmic
Reticulum
Golgi Bodies
Smooth Endoplasmic
Reticulum
A Few Additional Cell
Organelles
___________ – in animal cells, this is a
food storage sac.
____________ – all substances OUTSIDE
the nucleus.
____________– controls traffic in/out of
the entire cell.

Now let’s talk about structures ONLY
found in PLANT Cells!!
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Section 7-2
Plant Cell
Water
Vacuole
Cell Membrane
Go to
Section:
Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and
Function
_______________
7.

Function: stores water, sugars, waste
products

This is what makes lettuce crisp

When there is no water, the plant wilts
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Plant Cell
Section 7-2
Vacuole
Chloroplasts
Cell Membrane
Go to
Section:
Eukaryotic Plant Cell Organelles
and Function
______________
8.


Function: traps energy from the sun to
produce food for the plant cell
Green in color because of chlorophyll,
which is the green pigment that captures
the sunlight
Chloroplasts
2 Other Types of Plastids
________________ – many different
colors such as those found in fruit and
flowers.
________________ – cloudy white or
clear…they store starch such as in
potatoes, rice, squash.
Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells
Plant Cell
Section 7-2
Vacuole
Chloroplasts
Cell Membrane
Cell Wall
Go to
Section:
Eukaryotic Plant Cell Organelles
and Function
____________
9.



Function: _______________________
______________ to the cell membrane
Found outside the cell membrane in plant
cells
Allows the plant cell to hold high water
pressures…this keeps the plant from
wilting
Plant Cell
Cytoplasm
Vacuole
Smooth ER
Ribosomes
Chloroplasts
Cell Membrane
Cell Wall
Nucleolus
Golgi Bodies
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Rough ER
How Do Some Organisms Build from the Cell??
(Also known as the levels of organization in
living things)……..see below……
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cell – basic unit ↓
Tissue – group of CELLS that work to do the same
job such as Nervous tissue ↓
Organ – group of TISSUES that work to do the
same job such as the heart. ↓
System – group of ORGANS that work together to
do the same job such as the digestive system ↓
Complete Organism – group of SYSTEMS that work
together to do one job
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