Vitamins, Minerals, Antioxidants, Phytonutrients, Functional Foods

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Vitamins, Minerals,
Antioxidants,
Phytonutrients,
Functional Foods
By Melissa Bess, Nutrition and Health
Education Specialist
FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO
NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS
05/2007
Overview
What are vitamins?
 Categories of vitamins
 Functions
 Food sources
 Deficiencies
 What are minerals?
 Categories of minerals
 Antioxidants

Overview (continued)
Phytonutrients
 Functional Foods
 Food Labels
 Activity

What are vitamins?
Complex substances that regulate body
processes
 Coenzymes (partners) with enzymes in
reactions
 No calories, thus no energy

Categories
Fat-soluble
Dissolve in fat
Can be stored
A, D, E, K
Water-soluble
Dissolve in water
Carried in
bloodstream, not
stored
C and B-complex
vitamins
A and D excess can be Excess amounts may
harmful
cause extra work on
kidneys
E and K usually not
Vitamin A (and carotenoids)

Functions:




Normal vision
Protects from
infections
Regulates immune
system
Antioxidant
(carotenoids)

Food sources:





Liver
Fish oil
Eggs
Fortified milk or
other foods
Red, yellow, orange,
and dark green
veggies
(carotenoids)
Vitamin D (the sunshine vitamin)

Functions:




Promotes absorption
of calcium and
phosphorus
Helps deposit those
in bones/teeth
Regulates cell
growth
Plays role in
immunity

Sources:





Sunlight (10 – 15
mins 2x a week)
Salmon with bones
Milk
Orange juice
(fortified)
Fortified cereals
Vitamin E

Functions:


Antioxidant, may
lower risk for heart
disease and stroke,
some types of
cancers
Protects fatty acids
and vitamin A

Sources:






Vegetable oils
Foods made from oil
(salad dressing,
margarine)
Nuts
Seeds
Wheat germ
Green, leafy veggies
Vitamin K

Functions:


Helps blood clot
Helps body make
some other proteins

Sources:



Body can produce on
its own (from
bacteria in
intestines)
Green, leafy veggies
Some fruits, other
veggies, and nuts
Thiamin (B1)

Functions:

Helps produce
energy from carbs

Sources:



Whole-grain and
enriched grain
products
Pork
Liver
Riboflavin (B2)

Functions:


Produce energy
Changes tryptophan
(amino acid) into
niacin

Sources:





Liver
Yogurt and milk
Enriched grains
Eggs
Green, leafy veggies
Niacin

Functions:



Helps body use
sugars/fatty acids
Helps enzymes
function normally
Produces energy

Sources:


Foods high in protein
typically (poultry,
fish, beef, peanut
butter, legumes)
Enriched and
fortified grains
Pyridoxine (B6)

Functions:



Helps body make
non-essential amino
acids
Helps turn
tryptophan into
niacin and serotonin
Help produce body
chemicals (insulin,
hemoglobin, etc)

Sources:







Chicken
Fish
Pork
Liver
Whole grains
Nuts
Legumes
Folate (folic acid)

Functions:




Produces DNA and
RNA, making new
body cells
Works with vitamin
B12 to form
hemoglobin
May protect against
heart disease
Lowers risk of neural
tube defects in
babies
Controls plasma
homocystine levels
(related to heart
disease)
Sources:
 Fortified and
enriched grains and
breakfast cereals
 Orange juice
 Legumes
 Green, leafy veggies
 Peanuts
 Avacados


Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

Functions:



Works with folate to
make RBC’s
In many body
chemicals and cells
Helps body use fatty
acids/amino acids

Sources:






Animal products
Meat
Fish
Poultry
Eggs
Milk, other dairy
Biotin

Functions:


Produces energy
Helps body use
proteins, carbs, and
fats from foods

Sources:







Wide variety of
foods
Eggs
Liver
Wheat germ
Peanuts
Cottage cheese
Whole grain bread
Pantothenic Acid


Helps produce
energy
Helps the body use
proteins, fat, and
carbs from food

Sources:






Found in almost all
foods
Meat, poultry, fish
Whole grain cereals
Legumes
Milk
Fruits, veggies
Vitamin C

Functions:




Helps produce
collagen (connective
tissue in bones,
muscles, etc)
Keeps capillary walls,
blood vessels firm
Helps body absorb
iron and folate
Healthy gums




Heals cuts and
wounds
Protects from
infection, boosts
immunity
Antioxidant
Sources


Citrus fruits
Other fruits, veggies
Deficiencies
Rickets (children and vitamin D)
 Osteoporosis/osteomalacia (vitamin D)
 Scurvy (vitamin C)
 Night blindness (vitamin A)
 Beriberi (thiamin)

What are minerals?
Regulate body processes
 Give structure to things in the body
 No calories (energy)
 Cannot be destroyed by heat

Categories of minerals

Major minerals




Calcium
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Electrolytes (sodium,
chloride, potassium)

Trace minerals








Chromium
Copper
Flouride
Iodine
Iron
Manganese
Selenium
Zinc
Calcium
Bone building
 Muscle contraction
 Heart rate
 Nerve function
 Helps blood clot

Phosphorus
Generates energy
 Regulate energy metabolism
 Component of bones, teeth
 Part of DNA, RNA (cell growth, repair)
 Almost all foods, especially protein-rich
foods, contain phosphorus

Magnesium
Part of 300 enzymes (regulates body
functions)
 Maintains cells in nerves, muscles
 Component of bones
 Best sources are legumes, nuts, and
whole grains

Electrolytes

Chloride:



Potassium



Fluid balance
Digestion of food, transmits nerve impulses
Maintains blood pressure
Nerve impulses and muscle contraction
Sodium



Fluid balance
Muscles relax, transmit nerve impulses
Regulates blood pressure
Electrolytes

Sources:
Salt (sodium chloride)
 Fruits, veggies, milk, beans, fish, chicken,
nuts (potassium)

Iron
Part of hemoglobin, carries oxygen
 Brain development
 Healthy immune system
 Sources:

Animals (heme) vs. plants (non-heme)
 Better absorbed from heme
 Consume vitamin C with non-heme
 Fortified cereals, beans, eggs, etc.

Antioxidants
Slow or prevent damage to body cells
 May improve immune function and
lower risk for infection and cancer
 Carotenoids – beta carotene (familiar)
 Vitamin C
 Vitamin E
 Found in colorful fruits/veggies and
grains

Phytonutrients




Phyto – plant
“Spark” body processes that may fight, or
reduce risk for some diseases
Fruits/veggies
Examples:
For more information: see






Carotenoids
Lutein
Lycopene
Flavanols
Prebiotics/probiotics
Soybeans
page 109 in the ADA
Complete Food and
Nutrition Guide
Functional Foods
Foods that provide benefits beyond
basic nutrition
 Phytonutrients
 Prebiotics/probiotics
 Fatty fish/omega 3’s
 Soy protein
 Oats (heart-healthy)
 Flaxseed

Food Labels
Must list vitamins A, C, calcium, iron
 May list others (potassium, folate,
riboflavin, etc.)

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