DNA-The Alphabet of Life

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DNA:
The Alphabet
of Life
DNA
DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
Stores and passes on
genetic information from
one generation to another.
DNA Structure
The DNA structure
is shaped like a
spiral staircase, or
twisted ladder.
It is called a
double helix.
DNA Structure
The outer
parts of the
double helix
are made
from sugars.
DNA STRUCTURE
The steps of
the ladder
are made of
pairs of
nitrogen
bases
DNA STRUCTURE
1.Adenine = A
2.Guanine = G
3.Cytosine = C
4.Thymine = T
They are represented by their
capital letter.
DNA STRUCTURE
There is only one way the
nitrogen bases can form.
Adenine pairs with Thymine
Guanine pairs with Cytosine
DNA Structure
Base pairs are always the same
G
C
A
T
C
T
G
A
DNA STRUCTURE
AC T CAT G G T CAT G
T GAG TAC CAG TAC
This is an example of a genetic code that
may be found in your body.
DNA STRUCTURE
The combination of nitrogen
bases is the code that produces
the genes for a particular trait.
DNA STRUCTURE
Because there are so many
different combination of bases
the code can be limitless.
DNA STRUCTURE
Example:
ATCGTCAGG may be for hair color.
but
ATCGTCAGC may be for eye color.
DNA REPLICATION
Replication:
The process where
DNA molecules
form an exact
duplicate.
DNA REPLICATION
1. The ladder splits
2. Weak hydrogen bonds between the
base pairs break
3. Free floating nitrogenous bases begin
to pair with each strand
4. Two new DNA chains are formed
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bW5JnYZImJA&feature=fvst
Weak chemical bonds
Free floating
nitrogen bases
Protein Synthesis
• The work of the cell is carried out by
many types of molecules the cell
assembles (synthesizes).
• Many of these molecules are proteins.
• Protein molecules are long chains
formed from 20 kinds of amino acids in
a specific sequence.
Protein Synthesis
• The sequence of amino acids
influences the shape of the
protein which enables it to
carry out its function.
Protein Synthesis
• Many proteins:
–are enzymes that regulate
chemical reactions.
–become parts of organelles.
–are hormones such as insulin.
–are antibodies.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=983lhh20rGY
The DNA-Protein
Connection
• Much of the coded information stored in
genes is used to make proteins for cell
function and structure.
• These proteins are made at the ribosomes
according to the directions stored in the
DNA.
• Since a child inherits part of a parents
DNA, it could also inherit proteindependant traits such as hair texture
(straight or curly).
• J.R. Wanamaker from
www.lew-port.com
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