Benchmark II Review - Fort Hill High School

Biology Benchmark II
Cells and Organisms
Compound Microscope
Dissecting Microscope
Independent Variable
• The variable that is manipulated in the
• What you choose to change or study
Biased Data
• If you please an employer with their desired
• If you use only selected sets of data that
supports a specific goal
• If you use your personal opinion to decide the
•Have a nucleus
Cell Wall
•The main structural
component of the cell
wall is cellulose
Plant vs Animal Cells
• Plant cells contain a
– Cell Wall
– Chloroplasts
Cell Membrane
• The exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide occurs across the cell
membrane at the cellular level.
• When human red blood cells lose their
nucleus during development, they no longer
contain chromosomes.
• Cellular structures that capture energy from
the sun.
• Groups of cells are organized into tissues that
make up organs that work together to form
systems that have a similar function.
• Regulating Body
Temperature is a way that
your body maintains its
Excretory System
• Responsible for the removal of metabolic
wastes from the blood.
• Regulation of Extracellular Fluids
• Nitrogen Wastes
• Water and Salt Balance
Circulatory System
• Transports sugars to cell where they are used
• passes nutrients (such as amino acids,
electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones,
blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body
to help fight diseases,
• stabilize body temperature and pH,
• maintain homeostasis.
Endocrine System
• Produces chemicals that act at different sites
in the body.
• is a system of glands, each of which secretes a
type of hormone directly into the bloodstream
to regulate the body
Levels of Organization
•Organ System
• The process by which water moves across a
selectively permeable membrane.
• Process by which molecules move from an
area of high concentration to an area of low
Cell Membrane
• The cell membrane allow certain molecules to
enter and exit the cell.
• Know the process
• Know the purpose: to produce an identical
copy of a cell
• Found in organisms and is used for movement
Writing Responses
• In a freshwater pond, single-celled organisms
may have a special structure called a
contractile vacuole, which is used to pump
water out of a cell. Explain why this structure
is necessary to maintain a water balance
between the cell and its environment.
Writing Responses
• All organisms must be able to exchange
chemical substances between their cells and
their environment. Some organisms are
unicellular and others are multicellular. These
organisms have different strategies to obtain
and use these chemical substances.
• What chemical substances must be exchanged
between each organism and its environment?
• Describe the processes that cause these
chemical substances to move into and out of
• Describe the role of the cell membrane in the
exchange of materials in both types of
• Describe the role of body systems in the
exchange of materials in a multicellular
Benchmark II
January 9