Cell Resp. Notes

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Regents Biology
Cellular Respiration
Harvesting Chemical Energy
ATP
Regents Biology
2009-2010
“Burn fuels” to make energy
combustion
making heat energy by burning fuels in one step
fuel
(carbohydrates)
O2
CO2 + H2O + heat
aerobic respiration
making ATP energy (& some heat) by burning fuels
in many small steps
ATP
O2
food
(carbohydrates)
Regents Biology
ATP + CO2 + H2O (+ heat)
Energy needs of life
 All organisms need energy.

What do we need energy for?
 synthesis (building for growth)
 reproduction
 active transport
 movement
 temperature control (making heat)
Regents Biology
Where do we get energy?
 Energy is stored in organic molecules
carbohydrates, fats, proteins
Animals eat these organic molecules  food
 digest food to get


 fuels for energy (ATP)
 raw materials for building more molecules
 carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids
Regents Biology
ATP
What is energy in biology?
ATP
Adenosine TriPhosphate
Whoa!
HOT stuff!
Regents Biology
2009-2010
Harvesting energy stored in food
 Cellular respiration

breaking down food to produce ATP
 in mitochondria
 using oxygen
 “aerobic” respiration

food
ATP
usually digesting glucose
 but could be other sugars,
fats, or proteins
O2
glucose + oxygen  energy + carbon + water
dioxide
CH O +
6 12 6
Regents Biology
6O2
 ATP + 6CO2 + 6H2O
Using ATP to do work?
Can’t store ATP
 too unstable
 only used in cell
that produces it
 only short term
energy storage
ATP
Adenosine TriPhosphate
work
Adenosine DiPhosphate
ADP
A working muscle recycles over
10 million ATPs per second
Whoa!
Pass me the
glucose & oxygen!
Regents Biology
Mitochondria Structure
 Double membrane bound organelle
 Contains its own DNA (different from


nucleus’ DNA)
Matrix = jelly-like fluid
Cristae = folds of membrane within the
mitochondria
Regents Biology
Mitochondria are everywhere!!
animal cells
plant cells
Regents Biology
Steps of Cellular Respiration
1. Glycolysis (Anaerobic – does not require oxygen)
2. Kreb’s Cycle (Aerobic- requires oxygen)
3. Electron Transport Chain (Aerobic)
Regents Biology
Regents Biology
Which of the following is a product of
cell respiration?
1. ATP
2. Glucose
3. Oxygen
4. NADPH
0%
Regents Biology
1.
0%
2.
0%
3.
0%
4.
Cell Respiration takes place in the
1. Chloroplast
2. Nucleus
3. Mitochondria
4. Rough ER
90%
10%
0%
Regents Biology
1.
2.
0%
3.
4.
Which of the following processes
requires oxygen?
1. Photosynthesis
2. Aerobic
82%
Respiration
3. Anaerobic
Respiration
4. Glycolysis
12%
Regents Biology
1.
6%
2.
3.
0%
4.
Which of the following is NOT a stage
of cell respiration?
1. Krebs Cycle
2. Calvin Cycle
3. Glycolysis
4. Electron
82%
Transport
6%
Regents Biology
1.
6%
2.
3.
6%
4.
The first step of cellular
respiration is
1. Glycolysis
2. Kreb Cycle
3. Calvin Cycle
4. Electron
89%
Transport Chain
6%
Regents Biology
1.
2.
6%
3.
0%
4.
Plants conduct which of the
following processes?
1. Glycolysis
2. Photosynthesis
94%
only
3. Respiration only
4. Both
Photosynthesis
and respiration
0%
Regents Biology
1.
6%
2.
0%
3.
4.
Glycolysis takes place in the
1. Mitochondrial
matrix
2. cytoplasm
3. Cell membrane
4. Cristae of
mitochondria
Regents Biology
50%
22%
17%
11%
1.
2.
3.
4.
Which of the following steps of cellular
respiration does not require oxygen?
72%
A. ETC
B. Kreb’s Cycle
C. Glycolysis
Regents Biology
ys
is
co
l
Gl
y
yc
le
Kr
eb
’s
C
ET
C
11%
17%
NAD+
Regents Biology
NAD+
and
FAD+
Electron Carrier Molecules
NAD+
can be energized to make NADH
FAD+2
can be energized to make FADH2
Regents Biology
Step 1: Glycolysis
 Takes place in cytoplasm
 Anaerobic process- no oxygen required
 Splits glucose into two 3-carbon molecules called pyruvate



REACTANTS (IN) = 2 ATP, 2 NAD+, and 4 ADP
PRODUCTS = 2 ADP, 2 NADH, 4 ATP
Net gain = 2 NADH and 2 ATP
Regents Biology
Step 2: Kreb’s Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
 Takes place in matrix of

mitochondria
Aerobic Process - Uses oxygen
 Electron carriers NADH and FADH2 are
produced from NAD+ and FAD+

NADH and FADH2 are go to the Electron
Transport Chain to be used to make more ATP
 Carbon Dioxide is released
 2 ATP are produced
Regents Biology
Step 3: Electron Transport Chain






Takes place in cristae of mitochondria
Aerobic process – uses oxygen
Uses the NADH produced in Glycolysis & the Kreb’s Cycle
Uses the FADH2 produced in the Kreb’s Cycle
Produces 34 ATP!!!!
Water is released
Regents Biology
What if oxygen is missing?
 No oxygen available = can’t complete
O2
aerobic respiration
 Anaerobic respiration

also known as fermentation
 alcohol fermentation
 lactic acid fermentation
no oxygen or
no mitochondria (bacteria and
yeast)
 can only make very little ATP
large animals cannot survive
Regents 
Biology
yeast

bacteria
Anaerobic Respiration
 Fermentation

alcohol fermentation
 Yeast (a unicellular fungus that
Eats glucose and releases CO2
and alcohol)
 glucose  ATP + CO2+ alcohol
 make beer, wine, bread

lactic acid fermentation
 bacteria, animals
 glucose  ATP + lactic acid
 bacteria make yogurt
 animals feel muscle fatigue
Regents Biology
O2
Got the energy…
Ask Questions!!
Regents Biology
2009-2010
 2KClO3(l) → 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
C12H22O11(s) + 12O2(g) → 12CO2(g) + 11H2O(l) + heat
Regents Biology
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