2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules - Fort Thomas Independent Schools

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2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
KEY CONCEPT
Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
• Many carbon-based molecules are made of many
small subunits bonded together and are known as
MACROMOLECULES
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
Four main types of carbon-based
molecules or macromolecules are found
in living things.
•
•
•
•
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
• Carbohydrates are made of carbon,
hydrogen, and oxygen.
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
Carbohydrates include sugars and starches.
– Simple sugars. (one ring)
– Complex Carbohydrates
include starches, cellulose,
and glycogen.
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
Carbohydrates
• Can be broken down to provide energy for cells.
• Some carbohydrates are part of cell structure.
Cell Wall
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
Lipids are made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
–.
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
• Lipids have many different functions.
– Store energy
– Make up cell membranes
– Repel water
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
The cell membrane is made of two layers of lipids
along with carbohydrates and proteins.
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
Lipids include fats, oils, cholesterol and wax.
Fats=Solid @ room temp.
Oils=Liquid @ room temp
Cholesterol, wax =Solid @ room temp
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
-Proteins
contain C, H, O, Nitrogen and sometimes Sulfur.
– Proteins are made by linking Amino Acids
to form proteins.
Amino Acid
.
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
• Proteins are long chains of amino acid.
• Proteins differ in the number and order of amino acids.
– Amino acids interact to give a protein its shape.
hydrogen bond
Simple……………………………………Complex
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
• Protein have many functions
Antibodies - defend the body
Structural - hair, quills, feathers,
horns, nails and beaks.
Muscles–movement
Enzymes-speed up chemical
reactions.
Hormonal-- Insulin
regulates glucose.
Storage - egg whites; casein in
milk
Transport- hemoglobin transports
oxygen
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
Insulin Pump
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
• Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides.
One Nucleotide
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
– Nucleotides are made of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen
and phosphate
2.3 Carbon-Based Molecules
• There are two types of Nucleic Acids.
– DNA stores genetic information.
DNA
– RNA builds proteins
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