RNA & Protein Synthesis

 Monday Nov. 5, 2012
 List the two components that
make up the “backbone "of
Warm- Up
 Tuesday Nov. 6, 2012
 Define translation in your
own words.
Protein Synthesis
1.Define the term protein synthesis
2.Relate translation to the process of
protein synthesis
3.Describe the role of RNA in protein
Protein Synthesis
Synthesis = to make
Protein synthesis = to make proteins
Translation = process of synthesizing
Translation: Review
 Translation = process of
decoding mRNA to produce a
sequence of amino acids in a
chain (protein)
 mRNA = messenger RNA
 Amino Acids = building blocks
of DNA
 Location: cytoplasm
Translation: Review
 Which process must occur before translation
can take place?
1) mRNA attaches to ribosome
2) tRNA brings amino acids (a.acids) to ribosome
3) A. acids attached along “assembly line”
4) Continues until a “stop” codon is reached
Translation: making proteins
from amino acids
Making Proteins
 Sequence of nucleotides = instructions
for the order of amino acids
 Proteins = long chain of a. acids
 Code is read 3 letters at a time
= sequence of three nucleotides in DNA &
 Each codon codes for proper amino acid
 Example: AUG-CGU-AAC-UGA
 Start codon- "AUG" - Methionine
 Signals initiation translation
 Initiation = start
 Stop Codon- "UAG, UAA, and UGA"
 Signals termination translation
 Termination = stop
RNA’s role in Protein Synthesis
Type RNA
Abbreviation Function
Carry copies of
instructions for making
Ribosomal RNA rRNA
Makes up ribosomes
Transfer RNA
Brings specific a.acids to
ribosome according to
mRNA instructions
 http://www.dnatube.com/video/3446/BioRap-DNA-
Avid Thinking Strategy:
Protein Synthesis Rap/Rhyme
Directions (#11 on pg 11)
- Concept: Protein Synthesis
- Rap/Rhyme requirements:
1) Title (reflects main concept of poem)
2 ) Minimum 2 stanzas 4 lines each (grouping of lines, set off by a
space, that usually has a set pattern of meter and rhyme)
3) Illustration depicting concept of poem (2 colors)
4) 4 sentence explanation explaining how the song & illustration
demonstrate the concept of protein synthesis
Warm Up
 Wednesday Nov. 7, 2012
1. Define the word codon.
2. List one START codon and one STOP
Warm Up
 Thursday Nov. 8, 2012
 What organelle does translation
occur in?
Chromosomal Mutations
1. Define chromosomal mutation.
2. List and discuss common chromosomal
mutations found in the human body.
Chromosomal Mutations
= change in the # or structure of chromosomes
 4 types:
1) Inversion
2) Translocation
3) Deletion
4) Duplication
1) Inversion
= segment of chromosome breaks off & is
reinserted in the same place but in reverse
 Causes increased risk of miscarriages
2) Translocation
= one of 2 homologous chromosomes breaks &
binds to the other
 Causes cancer & Infertility
 Very deadly
3) Deletion
= Lose portion of chromosome
 Example: Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome
Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome
 Description: condition that is
caused by a missing part
(deletion) of the short arm
of chromosome 4
 Symptoms:
 Severe developmental delays
 Characteristic facial appearance
 Seizures
 Variety other birth defects
4) Duplication
= portion chromosome copied, resulting in extra
genetic material
 Example: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease
 Description: Progressive loss of muscle tissue
and touch sensation across various parts of the
 Symptoms:
 muscle weakness
 decreased muscle bulk
 Tends to slowly worsen over time
Avid Thinking Strategy:
Letter to the Editor
Directions (#13 pg 11)
 Concept: Chromosomal Mutations
 Letter Requirements:
1) 2-3 paragraphs (minimum 5 sentences each)
2) Write a letter about why mutations are harmful to humans
3) Use the new vocabulary words learned (in notes)
4) You must state an opinion and use 5 specific facts to
support that opinion.
5) There must be an illustration depicting the concept of
Warm Up
Friday Nov. 9, 2012
What organelle does transcription
occur in?
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