DATABASE IN ULDC

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SCADA SYSTEM
OVER VIEW, ARCHITECTURE
MAIN COMPONENTS
T Srinivas, Chief Manager, SRLDC
1
SCADA SYSTEM

OVER VIEW

ARCHITECTURE

MAIN COMPONENTS
2
SCADA :Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition


It is the system responsible for
gathering, processing, and displaying
information about the state of a
monitored system.
From a SCADA control center,
operators and application programs can
oversee and change the operating state
of monitored devices.
3
4
Southern Regional Load Despatching Facilities
RLDC
Bangalore
2
Sec
SLDC
Bangalore
Hyderabad
Kalamassery
Chennai
SCC UTP
2 Sec
Sub LDC
LGR
GTR
10 Sec
CDP
WGL
RTU
RTU
VIJ
TVM
TVM
MDI
ERD
RTU
RTU
RTU
RTU
INT SCADA
RTU
RTU
RTU
RTU
RTU
5
Scada System - Overview
TYPICAL SCADA SYSTEM
SCADA
H/W &
S/W
C TX
O RX
M E
M Q
N P
T
CONTROL
CENTRE
MEDIA
COMMN
MEDIA
C
O
M
M
N
TX
Rx
E
Q
P
T
R
T
U
T
R
A
N
S
D
U
C
E
R
P
A
N
E
L
C &R
PANEL
FIELD UNIT / RTU
SUBSTATION / GEN STATION
6
Scada System - Architecture
• First Generation – Monolithic
• Second Generation – Distributed
• Third Generation – Networked
7
Scada System - Architecture
MONOLITHIC SCADA SYSTEM
8
Scada System - Architecture
MONOLITHIC SCADA SYSTEM
Computing Centered with Main Frame
Non existant of Networks
Centralised System
Standalone sytem
9
Scada System - Architecture
DISTRIBUTED SCADA SYSTEM
10
Scada System - Architecture
DISTRIBUTED SCADA SYSTEM
• Advantage of developments and
improvement in system miniaturization
and Local Area Networking (LAN)
technology to distribute the processing
across multiple systems.
• Multiple stations, each with a specific
function, were connected to a LAN and
shared information with each other in
real-time
11
Scada System - Architecture
DISTRIBUTED SCADA SYSTEM
• Communications processors, primarily
communicating with field devices such
as RTUs.
• operator interfaces, providing the
human-machine interface (HMI) for
system operators.
• calculation processors or database
servers.
12
Scada System - Architecture
DISTRIBUTED SCADA SYSTEM
• Network-connected systems served not
only to increase processing power, but
also to improve the redundancy and
reliability of the system as a whole.
• Distributed architecture often kept all
stations on the LAN in an online state
all of the time.
13
Scada System - Architecture
NETWORKED SCADA SYSTEM14
Scada System - Architecture
NETWORKED SCADA SYSTEM
• The major improvement in the third
generation is that of opening the system
architecture, utilizing open standards and
protocols and making it possible to
distribute SCADA functionality across a
WAN and not just a LAN.
• There are still multiple networked systems,
sharing master station functions. There are
still RTUs utilizing protocols that are
vendor-proprietary.
15
Scada System - Architecture
NETWORKED SCADA SYSTEM
• Utilization of off-the-shelf systems makes it
easier for the user to connect third party
peripheral devices (such as monitors,
printers, disk drives, tape drives, etc.) to
the system and/or the network.
• Because of “open” or “off-the-shelf”
systems, SCADA vendors have gradually
gotten out of the hardware development
business.
16
Scada System - Architecture
NETWORKED SCADA SYSTEM
• Advantage of the use of WAN protocols
such as the Internet Protocol (IP) for
communication between the master station
and communications equipment.
• Advantage
brought
about
by
the
distribution of SCADA functionality over a
WAN is that of disaster survivability.
17
Control Room Hardware
18
Control center Architecture
RTUs on 60870-5101 Protocol
RTUs on Other
Protocol
Serial Cards
(including 8 pair of
modems) /Splitters
CFE Servers
NETWORK
Router cum Firewall
2 Nos.
2 No.
RTU on 104/
PMU 0n
C37.118/ other
IP devices
DATA ACQUISITION VLAN
SCADA NAS Storage
LCD / Video
Projection
Database Servers
SCADA Servers
Historian
Renewable
Control / mon
SCADA/EMS
Routers at RLDCs and
SLDC
Router cum Firewall 2 Nos.
Developmental
Workstation
ICCP Servers
DTS Server
Printers
ISR Servers
2 No.
NMS Servers
(B/W & Color)
UPS, CMC, RD, PDS, ISR, NMS / Management LAN
UPS
Monitoring
System
CMC
Identity Server
Server Management
Console
Replica Servers
Dual Monitor Training Consoles
WorkStation LAN
RD, CMC, UPS & SERVER MANAGEMENT LAN
Programmer Development
Server (1 Nos.)
VL A N (DMZ)
PDS, ISR, NMS LAN
Report Generation
EMS Servers
GPS , Time
and
Frequency
Displays
SO WorkStation
(Dual Monitor)
Remote WorkStation for
Boss
(Single monitor
SO WorkStation
No controls)
(Dual Monitor)
SO WorkStation
(Dual Monitor)
SO WorkStation
(Dual Monitor)
IT application servers (DMZ)
Secure VPN
Corporate NAS Storage
ABT Scheduling, Poc & Market
Operation
Energy accounting
Web Servers
FTP Server
CORPORATE LAN
PC
PC
PC
PC
Fig 1
Redundant Internet from different service
provider
PC
PC
19
Scada System – Main Components
• Field Data Interface Devices
• Communication Network
• Central Host Computer
• Operator Workstations and Software
Components
20
21
Scada System – Main Components
Field Data Interface Devices
• "eyes, ears and hands" of a
SCADA system
• Before any automation or remote
monitoring can be achieved, the
information that is passed to and
from the field data interface devices
must be converted to a form that
is compatible with the language of
the SCADA system.
22
Scada System – Main Components
Field Data Interface Devices
•
To achieve this, some form of
electronic field data interface is
required – RTU
•
RTU - primarily used to convert
electronic signals received from field
interface devices into the language
(known
as
the
Communication
protocol) used to transmit the data
over a communication channel.
23
Scada System – Main Components
Field Data Interface Devices
•
•
•
•
Sensors/transducers that convert
physical parameters to electrical
signals.
Signal
conditioning
circuitry
to
convert sensor signals into a form
that can be converted to digital
values.
Analog-to-digital converters
A Scada system to process this
digital data.
24
HARDWARE CONNECTIVITY DIAGRAM FOR SCADA AT
SUBSTATION / GEN.STATION
RS232
PORT
TRANSDUCER PANEL
REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT
MAIN
CPU
BOARD
COMMN
BOARD
TRANSDUCER I/P TERMINAL
PT
SEC
110VAC
PSU
MW
MVAR
F
R
O
M
VOLT
CT SEC
1 AMPS
S
W
I
T
C
H
Y
A
R
D
F
I
E
L
D
TRANSDUCER O/P TERMINAL
A
N
A
L
O
G
D
I
G
T
A
L
I/P
I/P
TERMINAL
BLOCK
TERMINAL
BLOCK
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
O/P
TERMINAL
BLOCK
EVENT LOGGER
PANEL
D
R
I
V
E
R
R
E
L
A
Y
25
Basic Data Acquisition
CT
CB
Pannel control
PT
Potential
Free Contact
Field
Clos
e
Trip
TRANSDUCER
DAS
NO Coil
for Close
RTU Ang In
RTU Dig In
NC Coil
for Trip
RTU Dig out
26
TRANSDUCERS

CLASSIFICATION


INPUT


0-10mA, 4-20mA, 0-5mA 0-5v,0-10v
OUTPUT IMPEDANCE


VOLTAGE/CURRENT
OUTPUT


SELF POWERED/AUXILARY POWERED
500Ω,1000Ω,2000Ω
ACCURACY

0.2 CLASS, 0.5 CLASS, CLASS 2 AND
ABOVE
27
A/D CONVERSION AT RTU LEVEL
(16 BIT ADC).
FOR MW / MVAR TRANSDUCER:
INPUT:
PT SEC PHASE TO PHASE : 110VAC
CT SEC TWO PHASE CURRENT (R & B): 1 A.
OUTPUT : 4 – 20mA(TRANSDUCER OUTPUT)
IN ADC:
AT 4mA
= 6553 Count
AT 20mA
= 32767 Count
12mA IS THE CENTRE POINT.
(+/- 0.1% IS THE ACCEPTABLE RANGE OF ERROR ON
FULL SCALE)
28
TELEMETRY FOR SCADA
P
P
Q
SS
P
DS
SS
V
F
V
SS
F
DS
MW
Q
MVAR
P
Q
O
SS
O
SS
DS
SS
SS
SS
SS
DS
DS
Q
TAP POSITION
FREQUENCY
SS
SINGLE STATUS
ISOLATOR POSIITION, PROTECTION,
LOSS OF VOLTAGE
DC
Q
SS
F
DS
SS
SS
SS
P
DC
SS
SS
SS
Q
DS
V
VOLTAGE
DOUBLE STATUS
CIRCUIT BREAKER POSITION
DIGITALCONTROL
CIRCUIT BREAKER CONTROL
THE
PARAMETERS
ARE
FOLLOWING STATIONS :
MONITORED
FOR
•Substations 220 KV and above
•132/110KV AC Interstate Tie lines and in loop of 220
KV transmissions system
•Generating Station above 50MW capacity.
•Significant stations identified by constituents
29
Scada System – Main Components
Communications Network
• Intended to provide data transfer
between the central host
computer servers and the fieldbased RTUs
• The Communication Network refers to
the equipment needed to transfer
data to and from different sites. The
medium used can either be cable,
telephone or radio.
30
Scada System – Main Components
Communications Network
• Historically,SCADA networks have
been dedicated networks
• With the increased deployment of
office LANs and WANs as a solution
for interoffice computer networking,
there
exists
the
possibility
to
integrate SCADA LANs into everyday
office computer networks.
31
Scada System – Main Components
Communications Network
The foremost advantage of this arrangement is
that there is no need to invest in a separate
computer network for SCADA operator terminals.
In addition, there is an easy path to integrating
SCADA data with existing office applications,
such as spreadsheets, work management
systems, data history databases.
32
Communication System
RAMAGUNDAM
PEDAPALLI
DURSHED
JAMMIKUNTA
GAJUWAKA
WARANGAL
VIZAG SWS
SHAPURNAGAR
VIDYUTH SOUDHA
GHANAPUR
BOMMUR
KAKINADA
CH.GUTTA
VTPS
HYDERABAD 400
BHIMADOLE
N’SAGAR PH
VIJAYAWADA
TALLAPALLI
SRISAILAM PH
SRISAILAM LBPH
KURNOOL
APSEB
Lingasugur
HUBLI
SOMAYAJULAPALLI
RTU’S
82
N
GOOTY
MUDDANOOR RTPP
DAVANAGERE
CHINAKAMPALLY
ANANTHAPUR
BANGALORE
KEB
CHENNAI
RTU’S
SOMANAHALLI
KUMBALGODI
PONDY
SRIPERUMBUDUR
RTU’S
P
05
SP.KOVIL
22
VILLIANUR
PONDY
KANNUR-B
SALEM400
CENTRAL
PANRUTI
SALEM230
NEYVELI
ERODE
SECTOR RTU’S
22
CHIDAMBARAM
INGUR
KOZHIKODE
LEGEND
RSCC (1)
MYLADUTURAI
CPCC (1)
PONGALORE
UDUMALPET
TRICHY
TRICHUR NORTH
ADANIKOTTAI
CHALAKUDI
MADURAI400
RTU’S
30
VIAKKAM
PALLOM
KUNDRA
TRIVANDRUM NORTH
KARAIKUDI
SIVAGANGA
MADURAI
KAYANKULAM
TNEB
RTU’S
PARIPALLI
SLDC (4)
SUB-LDC / SCC (14)
PUDUKOTTAI
THIRUMAYAM
KALAMASSERY
KSEB
KOVILVENNI
THIRUVARUR
ORTHANADU
40
FIBRE
FIBRE
FIBRE
FIBRE
OPTIC
OPTIC
OPTIC
OPTIC
LINK
LINK
LINK
LINK
110/132kv
(220kv)
(400kv)
(SEB)
33 links)
MICROWAVE LINK (35
Scada System – Main Components
Central Host Computer
Network of computer servers that provide a
man-machine operator interface to the SCADA
system.
The computers process the information
received from and sent to the RTU sites and
present it to human operators in a form that
the operators can work with.
34
Scada System – Main Components
Central Host Computer
Operator terminals are connected to the central
host computer by a LAN/WAN so that the
viewing screens and associated data can be
displayed for the operators.
SCADA systems are able to offer high resolution
computer graphics to display a graphical user
interface or mimic screen of the site.
35
Scada System – Main Components
Operator Workstations and Software Components
Operator workstations are most often computer
terminals that are networked with the SCADA
central host computer.
The central host computer acts as a server for
the SCADA application, and the operator
terminals are clients that request and send
information to the central host computer based
on the request and action of the operators.
36
Scada System – Main Components
Operator Workstations and Software Components
An important aspect of every SCADA system is
the computer software used within the system.
The most obvious software component is the
operator interface or Man Machine
Interface/Human Machine Interface (MMI/HMI)
package
Many SCADA systems employ commercial
proprietary software upon which the
SCADA system is developed
37
Scada System – Main Components
Operator Workstations and Software Components
Central host computer operating system
Operator terminal operating system
Central host computer application
Operator terminal application
38
Scada System – Main Components
Operator Workstations and Software Components
Communications protocol drivers
Communications network management
software
RTU automation software
39
Scada System – Main Components
Operator Workstations and Software Components
HMI
-DAC
-UI
-DMC
-ALARM EVENTS
-ICCP
-TDS
40
DAC MODULE (FOR SR ULDC)


Scans the RTUs cyclically or on demand by
the user
The periodicity of scan can be defined
Analog Data – 10 SECONDS
Status Data – By Exception /
Integrity check every 10 min

SOE Data processing
41
Data types



SCADA processes and stores three
different types of data:
Analog Measurement,
Status (CircuirtBreakers and
Isolators Positions), and
Count data (Like energy, Rainfall
during the day etc).
42
Data Type

Analog Data :



Analogs are numeric values representing the
state of variable-state devices, such as
power lines, transformers etc
In the monitored system a physical variable
is usually measured by a transducer, and the
output of the transducer is passed through
an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter in the
RTU .
Status Data :

Status values represent the state of devices,
such as circuit breakers, tap changers
43
Data polling method




Analogs are defined as
periodic/Cyclic data .
The periodicity varies from 10
seconds to 15 seconds depending
upon the quantity of data and
available bandwidth .
Digital input state changes are to be
reported spontaneously .
The Digital input data have higher
priority than Analog values.
44
Data Flow
NLDC
45
45
Digital Data
Potential free contacts are used to transfer switch
position to control centre.
46
Sequence Of Events




Sequence of events provides milli secs
accurate time of status changes for devices
monitored by Remote Terminal Units .
The RTU clock is synchronized periodically by
the control center clock .
Reading its internal clock when a SOE status
point changes state .
Time stamped digital data stored in RTU buffer
and transferred as file or Digital data with time
stamped is transferred for SOE
47
UI & DMC



The UI subsystem facilitates
interface to the User
It is through this module, the
display, the real time status of the
power system are viewed by the
user.
The status of the hardware & logical
devices, the communication with
the RTU etc .. are closely monitored
and failures are reported.
48
RSCC, BANGALORE CONTROL CENTRE
WORK
WS2
WS1
WS3
WS4
DUAL LAN
Switch
WS6
DTS
SYSTEM
AP-7
FE-1
AP-8
DTS
DTS
SERVER
WS5
FRONT END
PROCESSOR
S
WS7
SERVER
STATIONS
FE-2
APPLICATION
PROCESSOR
RAID
PNA:POWER NETWORK ANALYSIS
AP-1
AP-2
AP-3
AP-4
SCADA
AGC
DATA
BACKUP
PNA/ICCP
COPS
BACKUP
SERVER
SERVER
SERVER
SERVER
SERVER
34
AP-5
AP-6
COPS: COMPREHENSIVE
OPERATION PLANNING AND
SCHEDULING
ICCP: INTER CONTROL CENTRE
COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL
RAID:- REDUNDANT ARRAY OF
INDEPENDENT DISKS
49
Fig 2.41
50
Alarm/Events & Log Subsystem

Responsible for processing alarm & event
messages, updating the alarm/events,
sending event messages to the log
subsystem, acknowledging and deleting
alarms and generating application trigger
messages
51
52
ICCP






Responsible for data transfers between the control
centers
The data includes real time data, interchange schedules,
application program results, operator messages, files
and historical data
Data flows in a strict vertical direction.
The data flows from a Sub-LDC to the SLDC
The Sub LDCs attached to the SLDC do not communicate
directly with each other nor do they communicate with
the RSCC, other SLDCs, the SCC or Sub-LDCs on
another SLDC
Data flows from the SLDCs/SCC to the RSCC. However,
data does not flow directly from SLDC to another SLDC
or from a SLDC to SCC. The RSCC acts as an
intermediary between the SLDCs and the SCC
53
ICCP DATA FLOW
CLIENT
SERVER
ANALOG/ STATUS POINT
ANALOG/ STATUS POINT
ICCP POINT
ICCP POINT
VAR LIST
VAR LIST
DATA SET TRANSFER SET
DATA SET TRANSFER SET
ASSOCIATION
ASSOCIATION
DOMAIN
DOMAIN
54
PNA SYSTEM DATA FLOW
55
TDS



Long term Storage of data in the system. The
type of data include energy accounting data,
telemetry from RTUs, schedules, operational
planning data, random events such as system
alarms, despatcher messages and activity logs.
Real time calculations
TDS ( Temporal database & archive database )
is built using the SYBASE relational database
management
56
TDS


Archiving of the stored data – The archiving process copies data
from the Temporal database and stores it in a disk file. Archiving
can be scheduled to occur or it can be done on demand. Once the
disk file is created, it can be manually transferred to any type of
off-line storage such as CD or cartridge tape.
Configurable Parameters







Variable number
Variable name
Point Number
Sample frequency ( 2 seconds – 1 year )
Storage frequency ( 2 seconds – 1 year )
Collection method ( maximum, minimum, summation,
average, integration, standard deviation )
Retention period ( 1 month to 1 year depending on
the storage frequency )
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
ALARMS
65
ALARMS


ANALOG
DIGITAL
66
Alarms-Analogs




Normal limit-Range of limits which device is
considers to be operating normally
Reasonability Limit-range of values that
SCADA uses to determine whether the
value retrieved for the analog is realistic.
Forbidden Limit-Range of values that
SCADA considers violated when the analog
point fall within that range
Dead band Limits-On a pair of low or high
limits if it is violated the value must rise
above the limit by at least the dead band
amount before the SCADA consider s the
analog to be back within normal limits .
67
Normal Alarms-analogs




MW/MVAR/MVA/FREQ/VOLTAGE
ALARM LIMIT-OPERATIONAL
ALARM LIMIT-ALARMING
ALARM LIMIT-EMERGENCY
68
Alarm Limit -MW
ALARM LIMIT-OPERATIONAL
+/- 1.05*(1.732*V*I*O.8)
 ALARM LIMIT-ALARMING
+/- 1.10*(1.732*V*I*O.8)
 ALARM LIMIT-EMERGENCY
+/- 1.15*(1.732*V*I*O.8)

V-NOMINALVOLTAGE I-NOMINAL CURRENT
69
Priority Alarms

Alarms are categorized in 8 category
 Priority 1 -Emergency threshold overshoot and status
point alarms of controllable switching devices, ICCP
links and other ICCP data exchange related alarms)
 • Priority 2 -Point alarms of non-controllable switching
devices.
 • Priority 3 -Protection trips and substation alarms
 • Priority 4 -Alarms relevant to RTU’s, communication
lines, and alarms of “unreasonable” category
 • Priority 5 - “configuration management” alarms, i.e.
hardware failures (mimic board, printer, etc.) and
software failures
 • Priority 6 –All Network alarms-state estimator ,
contingency analysis) and the alarms detected by the
generation applications (AGC and LF)
 • Priority 7 -Scada topology alarms
70
 •Priority 8 -HDR, Tagging, Limit Replacement.
Flags

Gives Source and Quality of data

Source of data
 RTU -----------Telemetered
 ENTERED-----Manually Entered
 EXTERNAL----Always to be entered manually
 INTERSITE-----Data from other site
 CALCULATED—Calculation tag

Quality of data
 GARBAGE-The data is unreliable. The flag appears
when data is uninitialized.
 SUSPECT-Data is labelled suspect when there is one or
more of this flag (OLD, BAD, OVER and RESUSP)
 REPLACED-Data is labelled replaced when MANREP,
ESTREPor REMPL)
 GOOD-Data is labelled GOOD when it is not GARBAGE,
SUSPECT and REPLACED.
71
Flags








Unit: - uninitialized.
Old:-Could not be retrieved in the last scan
Telemetry failure:- communication with RTU failed
BAD: - when RTU returns one or more standard test values in
the RTU outside the allowed limits. Either Transducer is faulty
or there is an RTU malfunctioning.
Over Range: - Raw Value Received from RTU is outside the
expected Range.
Unreasonable:-The converted value has crossed the
reasonability limit.
Anomalous:-Basically not a data quality Flag .State Estimator
considers the above measurement not fit for the solution.
Manually replaced:-Replaced by operator
72
Flags







State Estimator replaced:-Value for an analog is
overridden, or replaced, by state Estimator on
operator request.
Generalized Calculation: - Value replaced through
generalised calculation.
Maintenance mode: - The Device has been placed in
maintenance mode.
NIS:-device not in service. It will not allow scanning
or calculation to update the record which is marked
NIS
Alarm Inhibit: - Alarms for this device inhibited.
Remote Suspect:-The value is suspect at source
control centre.
Remote Replaced:-The value has been replaced by
73
source control centre
Historical DATA Recording

Historical Data Recording (HDR) function allows
you to preserve a time series of any set of analog,
status, and accumulator measurements .
 HDR functions
Saves the SCADA measurements in disk files
called Historical files.
 Keeps track of the Historical files that have been
created and allows you to delete them.
 The Database Reconstruction functions allow you
to reconstruct or create a Data History listing
from the data in the Historical files.
 The reconstructed database can be moved to the
network database for use by other applications.

74
Trend Displays

Real Time Trend Display



Digital, analog or counter value can be
viewed simultaneously in different
displays.
The information is usually sampled
cyclically, stored in memory on a
circular buffer and plotted on a window
against time.
Historical Trend Displays

To trend the value (digital, analog
counter) with archived data
75
Tagging





Tags are free formatted text, which
provide critical information to next shift
operator .
Tags can be provided over digital,
analog and counters data-points.
Operators can insert, edit or delete any
number of tags, if they have privileges
to do so.
Some operators may only be allowed
to view tags.
These operations can be done from
graphic displays by selecting a dynamic
object or from a system list of entities.
76
77
EVOLUTION OF SCADA AT SRLDC
EARLY 90s :
- Remote Console system
i.e Getting Static Picture from Each SEB ,
displaying Limited values on cyclic
telemetry.
- DOT dedicated Leased Circuit @1200
baud.
- No storage facility.
- Operation Message transfer throu’ FAX
mile.
- Remote Console Terminals used as MMI.

78
REMOTE CONSOLE
EVOLUTION OF SCADA AT SRLDC

Later 90’s :
- Mini-SCADA system installed
- One server & 3 MMI system ,Later Dual
server system.
- Data acquired from 17Nos of 400kV
stations by
8-bit Microprocessor based RTU.
- Off Line studies.
- Local Area Network
- Storage on HDD & Backup done through
DAT
79
MINI SCADA
tapes.
EVOLUTION OF SCADA AT SRLDC

EARLY 2000 :
- INSTALLATION & COMMISSION OF ULDC
SCADA SYSTEM.
- MEASURANDS ACQUISION INCREASED FROM
FEW HUNDREDS TO FEW THOUSANDS.
- STORAGE OF VOLUMINOUS DATA.
- HIGH SPEED COMMUNICATION LINKS.
- Used RISC based Servers & Workstations.
- Time stamping at RTU as well as Control
Centre is possible with GPS.
- Weather station used for EMS studies.
80
SCADA SYSTEM EARLY 90’s AT SRLDC
REMOTE
CONSOLE
MODEM
REMOTE
CONSOLE
REMOTE
CONSOLE
REMOTE
CONSOLE
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
DOT LEASED
LINE
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
MODEM
ND110
TNEB
ND110
APSEB
ND110
KEB
ND110
KSEB
81
SCADA SYSTEM EARLY 90’s AT SRLDC (Contd …)
SRLDC CONTROL ROOM
APSEB
KSEB
TNEB
KEB
IOCC
NLY TS 2
BANGL’R
S/S
82
HARDWARE CONFIGURATION OF MINISCADA AT
SRLDC
AP LD
MODEM
TNEB LD
MODEM
KEB LD
MODEM
KSEB LD
MODEM
IOCC
MODEM
S’HALLI
MODEM
M
P
C
C
M
P
C
C
MONITOR
MMI
MMI
MMI
PENTIUM
SERVER
10
P
O
R
T
C
A
R
D
FRONT END
PC
M
P
C
C
PENTIUM
SERVER
MPCC – MULTI PORT COMMUNICATION CARD
83
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