THE PHYSIOLOGY OF TRAINING THE DISTANCE RUNNER

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THE PHYSIOLOGY OF
TRAINING THE DISTANCE
RUNNER
Dr. Joe Vigil
THE BIOLOGIC LAW OF
TRAINING
• The structure and performance capability
of an organ/organ system is determined by
the following:
– Its genetic constitution
– The quality and quantity of work carried out
• The greater the demand/stress placed on
an organ within its physiological limits, the
more intensely it adapts and the more
efficient it becomes.
Physiological Testing
Objectives:
• Provide baseline information
• Provide markers for effectiveness of
training
• Detect areas of strength/weakness
• Optimize performance
Training Goals
•
•
•
•
•
•
Major Physiological Targets
Improve body’s ability to transport blood
and oxygen
Increase ability of specific muscle groups
to effectively use available oxygen
Shift blood lactate threshold to higher
proportion of maximum speed/power
Increase aerobic capacity
Improve speed
Improve economy
Variables of Endurance
Performance
1)
2)
3)
4)
Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2 max)
Economy of Motion
Lactate Threshold
Fractional Utilization of VO2 max (%VO2
max)
5) Fuel Supply
Training Intensities: Lactate
Threshold and Training Zones
1. Recovery
• Intensity: very low, 2-3 mmol/L below LT,
30-5- bpm below LT
• Duration: 30-45 min
• Objective: To promote recovery following
high intensity intervals or glycogendepleting overdistance workouts.
Maintenance of cardiovascular
adaptations and muscle-skeletal system.
Training Intensities: Lactate
Threshold and Training Zones
2. Endurance
• Intensity: moderate, 1-2 mmol/L below LT,
10-30 bpm below LT
• Duration: 30 min- 3hrs
• Objective: Develop peripheral training
adaptations: increase fat metabolism,
increase number of aerobic enzymes,
increase size and number of mitochondria,
increase capillarization
Training Intensities: Lactate
Threshold and Training Zones
3. Lactate Threshold
• Intensity: moderate, TEMPO just below LT,
or at LT + 5bpm
• Duration: TEMPO 20-60 min continuous or
LT intervals 5-15 min with equal or one
half recovery
• Objective: Increase LT (%VO2 max at LT)
and maximal aerobic capacity
Training Intensities: Lactate
Threshold and Training Zones
4. VO2 max Intervals
• Intensity: high, 1-2 mmol/L, above LT, HR
associated with 95% VO2max
• Duration: 3-5 min intervals with equal
amount of rest
• Objective: Develop central training
adaptations: Increase stroke volume,
increase maximal aerobic capacity and
lactate tolerance (buffering capacity)
Training Intensities: Lactate
Threshold and Training Zones
5. Intensive Repetitions
• Intensity: very high, 2-6 mmol/L above LT
• Duration: SHORT 30-60 sec with complete
recovery. LONG 1-2 min with complete
recovery
• Objective: Increase anaerobic capacity
and buffering capacity
Method of Balke (VO2max)
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Walk/Run for 15 min
Convert to meters 1 mile + 1609 meters
Divide by 15 to calculate meters/min
The first 150 meters/min = 33.3 ml VO2
For every meter under 150, multiply by
.178 and subtract from 33.3 ml VO2
F. For every meter over 150, multiply by
.178 and add to 33.3 ml
PREDICTIVE TIME CHARTS
SEE CHARTS IN YOUR NOTES
The ABC’s of Elite Distance Runners
once Aerobic Base has been achieved
I.
II.
III.
Improvement in performance occurs in
trained runners when intensity of training is
increased
Improvement in Cardiorespiratory fitness
occurs when training intensities correspond
to 90-100% of VO2 max velocity
Improvement in endurance performance
occurs when the intensity in a steady state
run does not exceed 4mM lactate
concentration, which corresponds to
approximately 80-90% VO2 velocity
Major Mechanisms of Optimal
Distance Running Performance
•
Ability to produce high muscle force
output at a high velocity for a prolonged
period of time
1. Muscle Fiber Recruitment: Increase
number of muscle fibers contracting
simultaneously.
Increase number of actin/myosin filament
in each muscle fiber
Major Mechanisms of Optimal
Distance Running Performance
2. Muscle Fiber Recruitment Rate:
Increase rate of repetitive activation of
muscle fibers
3. Mitochondrial Density: Increase number
and size of mitochondria around all
muscle fibers
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