19_*Pets(II) 寵物福利

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Module 19
模組 19
Companion animals (2):
Wider considerations
伴侶動物(2)深層思考
This module will enable you to
本模組將使你能夠
• Understand that the activities of animal protection
societies and veterinarians must also be judged by
agreed welfare standards了解動物保護組織的活動與
獸醫師都必須要接受福利標準之檢驗
• Appreciate that legislation must be well drafted, be
enforceable and address the real problems了解立法
必須妥善並應確實針對問題執法
• Identify ways in which poor welfare standards are not
simply a reflection of economic factors.了解到動物福
利標準低不單只是經濟的因素
• Identify how cultural differences may result in
differences in interpretation不同文化差異有不同看法
module (模組) 19
2
Stray dogs and cats:
Dealing with the current problem
流浪狗貓:處理眼前之問題
The considerations in
Module 18 relate to a
long-term solution 模組18
是思考長期的解決辦法
Animal protection
societies have limited
resources to deal with
the problem動物保護組織
缺乏資源去處理問題
module (模組) 19
3
The role of animal shelters:
Animal protectionist’s dilemma
收容所角色:動保之兩難
Vary from large ‘professional charities’
to small independent groups 非營利
組織之規模差異很大,從專業慈善機構
到獨立之小團體都有
Often volunteers are motivated by a
genuine desire to save animals通常義
工之動力是出自真正救動物之熱心
May be veterinary input 獸醫也可能介入
Local economy may restrict the
feasibility of re-homing 在地之經濟力
照片:流浪狗吃垃圾,印度齋浦爾
也會限制認養的可能性
Limited resources 有限的資源
module (模組) 19
4
‘No kill’ policy 不殺生政策
照片:烏克蘭的狗收容所
這是時髦的取寵口號,但
台灣每年七萬隻狗的棄
養數要如何處理?
唯有不棄養才能不殺生。
module (模組) 19
5
Realities of ‘no kill’ & limited finance
不殺生真況與有限的經費
Relative overcrowding in poorly
constructed and maintained
facilities 環境擁擠設備不好
Poor hygiene and sanitation衛生差
Reduced and unbalanced nutrition
營養與醫療均很差
Lack of prophylactic and
therapeutic medications沒有疫
苗注射也沒有醫療
Inability to quarantine or isolate 無
法檢疫或隔離
module (模組) 19
照片:印度新德里收容所的狗
6
Factors predisposing to the outbreak
of infectious disease
易發生傳染病之因素
Overcrowding 密飼
Poor hygiene and sanitation 惡劣之
環境與健康
Continued contact with and
exposure to infected animals
持續的接觸已感染之動物
Poor nutrition 營養差
Intercurrent disease 併發各種疾病
module (模組) 19
照片:巴西里奧一所密
飼的收容所正在洗狗。
7
‘No kill’: Is it practical with a poor
economy? 在窮經濟條件下談不殺生是否務實?
In Rio, Brazil
module (模組) 19
8
Euthanasia and humane selective
culling 人道選擇性揀除
Euthanasia – ‘mercy killing’;
performed for the sake of
the individual animal itself
安樂死是考慮個體的「慈悲殺」
Selective culling – killing in a
humane way for the sake of
the whole population or
human society 選擇性揀除是為
了整體族群或人類社會而進行之人
道宰殺
module (模組) 19
9
Classification of dogs entering a
shelter 進入收容所狗之分類(1)
Dangerous to human health 對人類健康危險者
Dangerous to the health of other dogs in
shelter 對其他狗的健康危險者
Severe injury or disease that cannot be
treated 重病無法治療者
module (模組) 19
10
Classification of dogs entering a shelter
進入收容所狗之分類(2)
Severe injury or disease that can be treated but at
high cost嚴重受傷但醫療費貴
Minor injury or disease 輕微的受傷或生病
Behaviour problems 行為有問題
Healthy with no apparent problems 健康且無明顯
問題
module (模組) 19
11
Management policy decisions
管理政策之決定
What is the realistic capacity of the
shelter? 收容所真正能力
What happens if this capacity is
exceeded? 若能力被超出會發生
什麼事?
If selective culling is performed –
what are the criteria for choice?若
執行選擇性剪除那選擇標準為
何?
What is the role of the shelter? 什麼
是收容所之角色
module (模組) 19
12
The role of animal shelters –
The practical reality 收容所之角色 – 真正的角色
To keep lost pets for a sufficient time to
allow collection by owners 讓走失
寵物有充分的時間與飼主會合
To keep strays to enable them to be rehomed 讓流浪動物能被認養
To keep strays for a temporary period
as part of a neuter and release
program 協助TNR做暫時留置場所
module (模組) 19
13
Identification and re-homing
辨識與認養
Identification can:辨識可以:
Distinguish owned and unowned
dogs and cats 區分有主與無主
之狗貓
Identify repeat offenders 辨識重
覆違法者
Monitor success of re-homing 監
視認養是否成功
module (模組) 19
14
Neutering dogs and cats:
Is it welfare-friendly?
絕育狗貓:是否是福利友善?
Prevents animal exhibiting natural
behaviour 動物不能展現自然行為
Surgical intervention inflicts pain and
stress 手術會痛/緊迫
Pain and stress limited by good
anaesthesia, analgesia and surgical
technique 好的麻醉/止痛/外科技術
可降低痛與緊迫
On balance, considered that benefits
outweigh the problems 思考[優點比
缺點重要]之平衡
module (模組) 19
照片:等待絕育手術的公狗
15
The Five Freedoms五項自由
Freedom from hunger and thirst
免除饑渴的自由
Freedom from discomfort免除不
適的自由
Freedom from pain, injury and
disease 免除傷/痛/病的自由
Freedom from fear and distress
免除恐懼/緊迫的自由
Freedom to express natural
behaviour展現自然行為的自由
module (模組) 19
16
市府捕狗者用兇殘的捕狗鉗,印度
手術後之狗身上都是泥,印度
狗被捕捉後在車上都繫繩,印度
module (模組) 19
17
Minimum surgical standards
最低之外科標準
外科手術粗糙
無菌技術之外科手術
module (模組) 19
18
Basic requirements for
‘welfare-friendly’ neutering
福利友善絕育之基本需求
Humane methods of catching 人道捕捉
Hygienic and comfortable kennelling 衛生舒適之犬舍
Proper handling 適當之照顧
Adequate analgesia 優良之止痛
Adequate anaesthesia 優良之麻醉
An adequate standard of surgical facility and technique 外科設
備與技術之適當標準
Adequate post operative nursing care 適當之術後照顧
Monitoring for a period after release野放後適當之監測
module (模組) 19
19
The pet trade:
Pet shops and markets
寵物買賣:寵物店與市場
Variation in standards and regulation
worldwide 全世界標準不一
Should take into account the welfare of the
animal: 應該考慮福利
In the supply chain prior to the
shop/market 進入市場前供應線之福利
During its stay in the market/shop 停留在
寵物店內之福利
After being sold 售後之福利
module (模組) 19
韓國街頭販賣小犬
20
Possible welfare problems in the
supply chain 供應鏈之動物福利
Breeding farms in poor and stressful conditions may
predispose to disease 繁殖場條件差且緊迫容易生病
In-breeding may result in congenital defects近親繁殖會造
成先天缺陷
Transportation in inappropriate conditions運輸條件差
Failure to provide appropriate prophylactic medication 未提
供適當之預防性醫療措施
Animal may have been captured inhumanely from the wild
可能是以不人道方式從野外抓來賣的
module (模組) 19
21
Pet shops:
Regulation and legislation
寵物店:規定與立法
May involve licensing and inspection 涉及執照規定與督察
Requires a structured method of policing and enforcement
需要政策與執法之整套做法
Sets minimum standard of husbandry and care of the pets
設立寵物飼養繁殖及照料之最低標準
May restrict particular species that can be sold 特殊物種應
限制買賣
May require evidence of staff training or qualification 需要人
員訓練或能力之認定證書
寵物界的確有好商人,關鍵是他們守法並與動保團體合諧
相處,並確實按照法律保護動物,能夠維持高工作水平。
而不是用賤價去與非法商人競爭,這需要政策與執法力。
module (模組) 19
22
The Pet trade:
Basic requirements
寵物買賣:基本需求
To help the potential pet owner make the
right choice in selecting the most
appropriate pet, considering their
individual needs and circumstances 幫助
想要買狗的人,根據他的需要與環境條件
選擇適當的狗
Provide him/her with all the information
necessary to be a responsible pet owner
提供一切成為 [責任飼主] 之資料
Many agencies share in this responsibility
很多寵物商人也主動分擔提升責任飼主之
成本。企業長期之生存要靠 [責任飼主]
module (模組) 19
23
Aggressive dogs攻擊性狗
A major problem in Europe and the
USA 在歐美是重要之問題
Size of the problem magnified by
intense media interest 媒體誇大報
導
Governments pressurised to introduce
inappropriate ‘breed specific’
legislation 政府強制立特殊品種
之不當法律
Linked to ‘dog fighting’ – but most
bites by owned dogs on their own
property 與鬥狗有關,但大部分狗
咬人案例是在主人家中被家狗咬
module (模組) 19
24
The UK Dangerous Dogs Act 1991:
Poor legislation causing welfare problems
英國危險狗法律1991:立法不良造成動物福利問題
Breed specific 特殊品種
Strict provisions 規定過嚴
Automatic destruction order 自
動安樂死之命令
Practical difficulty of
interpretation 解釋困難
Court given no discretionary
powers 法庭無裁量權
Reversal of burden of proof 舉
證責任之倒置
module (模組) 19
彼特犬
25
Aggressive dogs: The problem of breed
specific legislation 攻擊性犬:特殊品種之立法
Aggressive and non-aggressive dogs of
all breeds 所有狗之品種都有攻擊
或非攻擊可能性
Most bites in home by non aggressive
breeds 大部份在家中發生咬人的
都不是攻擊性狗
Difficulty of specifically identifying
breeds 品種難鑑定
Penalties aimed at dog rather than
owner 處分偏重狗而非不負責任的
飼主
module (模組) 19
26
Aggressive dogs: The real issue
攻擊性犬:真正的議題
The problem is that many dogs
are owned by dangerous and
irresponsible people 問題是許
多狗被危險與不負責的飼主
飼養
Reflects a need for improved
public awareness and education
故需要增進社會教育(對飼主)
Reflects a need for improved
socialisation and training of
dogs 狗也需要社會化訓練
module (模組) 19
27
Aggressive dogs:
Implications for shelters
攻擊性犬:收容所經營
If aggression in individual dogs is partly a
reflection on socialisation and training, and if the
role of a shelter is to re-home dogs to new
families 若狗之攻擊性是因缺乏社會化與訓練,
且如果收容所是為狗找新家,那麼:
1. Should the shelter protocol aim to improve
the chances of good socialisation? 收容所
之工作目標是否應該是提升狗之社會性?
2. Failure to do this could increase the risk of
abandonment 若未提升將增加棄養風險
module (模組) 19
28
等
待
安
樂
死
的
比
特
犬
Breeding and showing dogs:
Welfare implications
繁殖與狗展所隱藏的福利問題
Involvement for financial gain, as hobby or status 涉及
金錢利益,像是嗜好或地位
Selective breeding may have resulted in significant
hereditary defects and disease 選擇性育種會造成顯
著之先天性疾病
Fashion and breed standards may encourage mutilations
for cosmetic purposes 為逢迎時尚與純種標準會應
加以美容為目的之截肢手術
May be problems of transport over long distances and
housing during shows 參加狗展之長途旅行與住宿
可能會引發問題
module (模組) 19
29
Breed standards:
Hereditary defects
品種標準:先天性缺憾
短鼻之鬥牛幼犬
髖關節發育不良之德國牧羊犬
module (模組) 19
30
Breed standards: Mutilations
品種標準:截肢
module (模組) 19
31
‘Unnecessary’ mutilations
非必要之截肢
A mutilation is any surgical removal or modification of
a body part 截肢是用手術割除或改變某些部位
Sometimes necessary in an individual for therapeutic
purposes 有時為了治療而動手術是必要的
If performed, should be by a veterinarian with adequate
anaesthesia and analgesia 手術應由獸醫師施行且需
要適當的麻醉
‘Cosmetic mutilations’ are unnecessary and should be
banned “美容截肢”是不必要的且應予禁止
Requires education and active co-operation with
breeders and kennel clubs 需要教育以及主動與狗繁
殖業和犬會合作
module (模組) 19
32
European Convention on Pet Animals:
Article 10 – surgical operations
歐洲寵物會議第10條:外科手術
Surgical operations for the purpose of modifying the
appearance of a pet animal or for other non-curative
purposes shall be prohibited and, in particular禁止因
非治療之目的用手術變更寵物外觀,尤其是:
a) The docking of tails 剪尾巴
b) The cropping of ears 剪耳
c) Devocalisation 剪聲帶
d) Declawing and defanging 去爪與拔犬齒
module (模組) 19
33
Welfare and advances in veterinary
therapy 獸醫治療之福利與水平
Advances in veterinary science may follow some years behind
human medicine 獸醫學之進步較醫學遲數年
In affluent societies, pet owners demand similar therapies for
their pets as for themselves富有的社會會要求對狗比照對人
的方式治療
Is there a danger of sometimes providing a service to the owner
for financial gain rather than considering the welfare of the pet?
不定時(偶爾)為了賺錢而犧牲動物福利的做法是否危險?
Example 1: Cancer therapy 例一: 癌症治療
Example 2: Kidney transplantation in cats 例二: 貓腎移植
module (模組) 19
34
Consumption of dog meat
吃狗肉
Some Asian cultures e.g. Korea 某
些亞洲國家如韓國有此習慣
The meat is said to impart special
health giving and aphrodisiac
properties 據說是強身壯陽補品
Said to be enhanced by increased
suffering before death據說較殘忍
Brutal killing methods屠宰方式殘暴
Poor welfare conditions in market 市
場上動物福利不好
module (模組) 19
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Consumption of dog meat: What is the
ethical problem? 吃狗肉:倫理問題
Is it inherently wrong to eat dog
meat? 吃狗肉先天上錯嗎?
Is it acceptable to eat dog meat
as long as dogs do not suffer
prior to and during slaughter?
如果狗是無痛之人道屠宰,是
否可被接受?
Does poor control increase the
risk of human disease? 不好
的管理是否會增加人類罹患疾
病之風險?
module (模組) 19
36
Consumption of dog meat: The Chinese
dimension 吃狗肉:中國規格
Importation of St Bernard dogs to
cross breed with local ‘meat’
breeds 進口聖伯納與本土肉狗配
Improved litter size, meat yields and
temperament 增進每胎頭數、產
肉量、與特性
Is this immoral or simply standard
agricultural practice? 這樣做是不
道德還是標準之農業程序?
module (模組) 19
37
Summary and conclusions
摘要與結論
Animal protection societies face a real dilemma, and must ensure
the consequences of their activities do not result in welfare
problems 動物保護團體面對一個真正的兩難,且必須確保
其做法之結果沒有造成福利問題
Veterinarians have a moral obligation to consider the welfare of
the animals in their care 獸醫執業時有動物福利之道德義務
The pet trade requires regulation 寵物交易需要規範
Poor legislation may result in additional problems 不好的立法會
造成更多問題
module (模組) 19
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Summary and conclusions
摘要與結論
Pet owners and breeders must ensure that their
imposition of breed standards does not impose
unacceptable welfare problems 寵物飼主與繁殖業必
須確保不能因純種而破壞動物福利
We must take account of multicultural views 我們必須
想到多文化觀點
module (模組) 19
39
Further Reading
進修書目
• Chang YF, McMahon JE, Hennon DL, LaPorte RA Coben JH. 1997
Dog bite incidence in the city of Pittsburgh: a capture-recapture
approach American Journal of Public Health, 87: 1703-1705
• Lindsay SR 2000 Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training,
Volumes 1: Adaptation and Learning. Ames: Blackwell
• Ostanello F, Gherardi A, Caprioli A, La Placa L et al 2005 Incidence
of injuries caused by dogs and cats treated in emergency
departments in a major Italian city Emerg Med J 2005; 22:260-262
• Weiss HB, Friedman DI, Coben JH. Incidence of dog bite injuries
treated in emergency departments. J American Medical
Association. 1998;279:51-53. Photo: An American pitbull terrier with
fight wounds to the head
module (模組) 19
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