MALLEUS

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MALLEUS
SRI CHUSNIATI
Departement of Vet. Microbiology
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Airlangga University
MALLEUS
INGUS JAHAT
GLANDERS
FARCY
ROTZ
O : Eubacteriales
F : Brucellaceae
G : Malleomyces
Sp : -Malleomyces mallei  Malleus
-Malleomyces pseudomallei
= Pseudomonas pseudomallei
 Mellioidosis
Caused
:
Malleomyces mallei
= Pseudomonas mallei
= Burcholderia mallei
Sources of
infection :
secrete from nostril, excreta
from chronic vulnus, saliva,
tears, urine and feces
 Routes of
infection :
Oral
Inhalation
Skin wound
 The characterized of the disease :
zoonotic, acute and chronic
Majority host sensitive at horse and equidae
Human : fatal at about + 95% if no handled
Dog, cat, goat  moderate sensitive
Sheep, pig, cattle  resistant
guinea pig, mice  as an animals experimental
 Morphology :
Straight bacilli, pleumorphic, aerobic
0,3-0,5 um x 0,7-5 um
Non motile
Negative Gram
Spore & capsule  negative
Easy growth at standard medium
 Biochemistry characterized :
Indol, nitrate reduction, MR/VP  negative
H2S, NH3, Enzymes of : Catalase, oxidase and
gelatinase  positive
Clinical symptoms
Acute performs
Fever, disphnoe
 Discharge from nostril at periodically
 Swelling at submaxillaris lymphoglandulae

+ painfull
 Cachexia  to be died at 2 weeks

Chronic performs
Its too weak, cough, discharge from nostril,
intermittent fever
 Swelling at submaxillaris lymphoglandulae
 Lesion/nodules in internal noose and skin
 farcy

 Pathology anatomy :
 Rhinitis catarrh  purulent
 High degree infection  rupture in septum nasi
 star spots
 Pulmo & pleura: gray's nest
 Cavum thorax : fibrins exudates
 Liver, lymph, testis  caseous
 Swelling at submaxillaris lymphoglandulae  specific
 Skin : ulcus & nodule as a lymph circulations

to fall off their hairs & cicatrisation
 3 kinds of malleus :
Nose of malleus
 Lung of malleus
 Skin of malleus
 can be represented together
 Nose of malleus :
Nodules at septum nasi  obstruction on cavum nasi  broke
out  mucopurulent secrete and ulcers.
 Swelling at submaksilaris lymphoglandulae
 If recovery  Cicatrisation on skin substances with star
perform

Lung of malleus :
Majority by adverse of nose malleus infection
 Nodules consist of pus & poly morfo nuclear (PMN) cell at the
outer rings
 Chronic  Skin substances damage and than they would be
substitute with cicatrix skin substance  TBC like perform

Skin of malleus :
Series Nodules perform at surface of lymph node circulation
(systemic infection by lymph node circulations).
Broke out perform  ulcus/ulcera with pus excreta
 Pathogeneses:

Inhalation  rhinitis catharalis  rhinitis
purulenta  eruption at mucous of nose.
Proteolysis enzyme presented (bacteria) 
mucous irritation  discharge nasal & ulcera.
Ulcera sica  “keropeng” (outer skin fall out) &
cicatrisation perform  cicatrisation with star
perform/stella  distribute to be nasopharynx
tract  cough.
Bacteria in bronchus  ulcer  exudates 
auscultation examinations  sounds of ronchi

Oral  digestives tract.
Proteolytic enzyme  mucous irritation  ulcera 
bacteria distributed after insertion from blood
circulation  lymph node circulation  predilection
(lung & septum nasi). The bacteria avilable at discharge
of nose, pus from the part of swelling body, saliva, tear
of eyes, feces and urine.

From skin vulnus (temporary)  hematogen  lymph
node circulation  nodules series at outer surface of
lymph node circulation  broke out  ulcus & pus
excreta, if the vulnus skin to be dried  would be
produced “keropeng”.
 Diagnosis :
Clinical symptom
 Mallein test

•
Ophthalmic mallein test
 2-3 drops of mallein  saccus conjunctiva
 R/ +  conjunctivitis purulent after 1-2 days.
•
Intra dermal test
 0,1 cc mallein id  measuring the thick of skin
before injection and 12 hours after injection
if > 60%  +
< 60%  -
the test have a negative result  re-test in after 2-3
weeks from the first
R/ +  + malleus  please to be killed
-  free from malleus
If
-Isolation and identification
To be isolation from lesion & will be growth up on
- Glycerin agar
- Glycerin potato
 adverse examination by
biochemistry test
-Biologist test
- intra peritoneal
administrated against to
guinea pig/ male mice
 orchitis
-Serologist test
Handling material
(going to be laboratories) :
 infected animal (ante mortem) : serum → serologist
Swab by sterile cotton of nasal discharge
(pus) → bacteriologist test
 infected animal (post mortem) : Swelling organ
substances (cavum nasi, lung, testicle, liver):
- Still make it fresh
- Growth up on Glycerin agar
- Test by male guinea pig after injected intra
peritoneal
DD/.
 Nasal discharge
Strangles = “ Ingus tenang” = Adenitis equorum
= Droes
c/ Streptococcus equi (Gram +)  acute
Curve of fever was specific illustrated :
Initial of action at performing abscess on lymph
node  The peak of body temperature was
presented
The broke out abscess (spontaneous /chirurgic)
 declined body temperature  gradual recovery

 Nodules and skin ulcers





Epizootic lymphangitis / “selakarang”
 Histoplasma farciminosa (fungi)
Ulceratif lymphangitis
 Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
Melioidosis  Pseudomonas pseudomallei
 distributed the biggest nodules (“bungkul bungkul”)
Dourine  Trypanosoma equiperdum 
“Dollar spot” predilection at mucose membrane
Swelling lymph node


Tbc
Neoplasma
Therapeutics :
Its too difficult, because :




Predilection at septum nasi
The recovery process was to long term
processed, with fatal implication
Verry contagious
No vaccination
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