2 - OIE

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Veterinary Education and the importance
of the Veterinary Statutory Bodies
Dr Bernard Vallat
Director General of the OIE
Introduction (1)
This Conference addresses the need for better
global harmonisation of veterinary education
worldwide, based on OIE guidelines.
It also focuses on strengthening the role of
Veterinary Statutory Bodies (VSB) in regulating
the activities of veterinarians and veterinary paraprofessionals and ensuring these activities are
ethical and of high quality.
2
Introduction (2)
The activities of Veterinary Services (VS),
both public and private components, are
recognised as a
global public good.
Quality veterinary education together with
effective VSBs are cornerstones of good
veterinary governance
3
Introduction (3)
 There is an urgent need, particularly in the
developing world, to strengthen VS and VSB
competence in line with the international standards
of the OIE, especially those dealing with quality of
VS and good governance.
 This Conference is a key part of the OIE strategy
to support Member countries who are taking steps
to strengthen veterinary governance.
4
The global context (1)
 Many countries do not have acceptable quality
veterinary education, and this problem is
worsened by inadequate regulation of the
veterinary profession by the VSB.
 A recent OIE survey in Africa shows that only 36
of 52 countries have established formal VSBs
and in many cases the compliance of the VSB
with the OIE standards is not optimal.
5
The global context (2)
 Society has high expectations of the veterinary
profession, particularly with respect to veterinary
public health, animal welfare and food safety.
 To help VS meet these expectations, Member
Countries mandated the OIE to take a global
leadership role in making recommendations on
veterinary education and governance, including
requirements for effective VSBs.
6
The global context (3)
 +1 billion people by 2050
Global demand for food security
 Demand for animal protein is
expected to increase by more
than 50% before 2020
Global Population: 1950-2015
Total
Billions
 Intensification is unavoidable
8
7
 Focus on developing / transition
countries
6
5
 Low impact to global
consumption of the decrease of
animal protein consumption in
developed countries
4
3
2
1
0 1950 55
60
65
70
75
Source: US Bureau of the Census
7
80
85
90
95 2000 05
10
15
8
Trends on world production
World meat production (milion tonnes)
Million tonnes
Million tonnes
700
Source: FAOSTAT
300
250
Other
Meat
Central &
South America
200
North
America
150
Europe
100
50
East Asia
World milk production (million tonnes)
Source: FAOSTAT
600
500
Other
Milk
E. Europe
Central & S.
America
400
N. America
300
W. Europe
200
East Asia
100
South Asia
0
0
World eggs production (million
tonnes)
1960 1965
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Source: FAOSTAT
80
Million tonnes
70
60
50
40
30
Other
Eggs
Central & S.
America
N. America
Europe
20
East Asia
10
Source: FAOSTAT
0
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
The global context (4)
Pathogens can spread via people,
animals and goods – they do not
respect international frontiers
Zoonotic pathogens are increasingly implicated in
serious human illness and new and re-emerging
diseases
- and have potential for use in bioterrorism.
The Five T´s : trade,
travel, transport tourism
and terrorism.
9
The importance of the zoonotic potential
of animal pathogens
• 60% of human pathogens are
zoonotic;
• 75% of emerging diseases are
zoonotic;
• 80% of agents with potential
bioterrorist use are zoonotic
pathogens;
• Veterinarians are on the front line to
protect human health.
10
The Veterinary Services
in the front line
Reducing poverty
Food security
Protecting animal health
Protecting public health
Market access
Animal welfare
Animal production food safety
a global public good
11
The OIE vision – key concepts

•
•
•
•
To improve animal health and welfare globally, in
order to help guarantee veterinary public health,
food safety and food security.
Concept of Public Good
Concept of “One Health”
Good veterinary governance
Animal health strategies and
programmes at the global,regional
and national level
• Global control programmes: FMD, PPR, rabies in dogs
12
The OIE vision – global standards

To improve animal health and welfare globally,
in order to help guarantee veterinary public
health, food safety and food security.

Reference organisation for the WTO with respect to
science-based standards for, surveillance, disease
control, the VS and international trade

Animal production food safety (in collaboration with the
Codex Alimentarius Commission)
 Prevention of biological disasters
 Animal welfare
13
The OIE vision – excellence in the practice
of veterinary medicine






14
Veterinarians have an essential role in society;
Good governance is essential for national
Veterinary Services (public and private sector)
and Aquatic Animal Health Services;
OIE recommendations on the quality of
veterinary education (initial and continuing);
Capacity building and support for OIE
Members;
Public – private partnerships;
Quality of the Veterinary Statutory Body.
15
The OIE PVS Pathway
15

Initiatives for good governance and
veterinary education are under the
umbrella of the OIE PVS Pathway,
established in 2006 to support Member
Countries wishing to strengthen their
national VS and to comply with OIE
quality standards.

At the request of Members, the OIE
carries out missions to evaluate the
performance of VS, including veterinary
education and VSB performance.

As at December 2013, more than 250
PVS Pathway missions had been
carried out in 117 countries, most of
which are developing countries.
Capacity building for « Treatment »
Capacity Building,
VS
Specific Activities,
Projects and Programs
Veterinary
Legislation
« Diagnosis »
« Prescription »
PVS
Evaluation
PVS
Gap Analysis
including
Veterinary Services’
Strategic Priorities
The OIE collaborates with governments,
donors and other stakeholders
16
Public / Private
Partnerships
Veterinary
Education
PVS Pathway
Follow-Up
Missions
Laboratories
http://www.oie.int/en/support-to-oie-members/pvs-pathway/
OIE PVS Pathway – State of play
OIE PVS
Evaluation
PVS Gap
Analysis
Legislation
Missions
Missions
Missions
Requests
Requests
done
done
done
PVS
Evaluation
Follow-up
Requests
Missions
done
OIE
Members
Requests
Africa
52
53
50
43
36
27
17
12
9
Americas
29
25
22
15
11
7
4
5
2
Asia & Pacific
32
19
18
15
11
5
5
3
2
Europe
53
16
16
8
6
3
2
1
1
Middle East
12
12
11
8
4
4
4
1
0
178
125
117
89
68
46
32
22
14
TOTAL
5 November 2013
17
Global conferences
 The 1st global Conference (Paris 2009) identified the need
to define minimum competencies that newly graduated
veterinarians should have in order that Veterinary
Services (public and private components) can meet their
mandate in accordance with the OIE standards published
in the Terrestrial and Aquatic Animal Health Codes
 This does not exclude local circumstances
The OIE created an expert ad hoc Group on
Veterinary Education, which produced
recommendations on veterinary ´Day 1´
competencies:
http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Support_to_OI
E_Members/Vet_Edu_AHG/DAY_1/DAYONE-B-angvC.pdf
18
Global conferences
 The 2nd global Conference (Lyon 2011) highlighted the
importance of a minimum veterinary curriculum which
would enable the attainment of the competencies;
underlined the important role of the VSB, and encouraged
the OIE to develop the concept of twinning for Veterinary
Education Establishments.
Guidelines on the Core Veterinary
Curriculum are on the OIE
website:
http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Su
pport_to_OIE_Members/Vet_Edu_AHG/f
ormation_initiale/Core-ENG-v6.pdf
The Twinning concept
 The OIE developed a programme for
Veterinary Education Establishments (VEE) to
enter into a Twinning arrangement with a
parent institution.
 The OIE helps Member countries to promote
the funding of twinning projects by working with
governments, donors and international
organisations
 The OIE continually promotes collaboration
between VS, Veterinary Education
establishment (VEE) and VSB
OIE
achievements
and veterinary
statutory
bodies
21
The Bamako Declaration
 The OIE Regional Representation for Africa held a
conference on ‘The role of Veterinary Statutory Bodies’ in
Mali in April 2011.
 The conference recommended that the OIE augment its
standards on VSBs and related critical competencies in
the OIE PVS Tool, and called for the establishment of a
twinning mechanism to provide for transfer of expertise
and experience between VSBs in OIE Member Countries.
 The Bamako Declaration:
http://www.rr-frica.oie.int/docspdf/en/2011/VSB/Bamako_Declaration.pdf
22
Standards on VSB in the Code (1)
 In Chapter 3.2 (Evaluation of Veterinary Services), Article
3.2.12 sets out standards for VSBs, including:
•
objectives and functions;
•
legislative basis, autonomy and functional capacity;
•
the composition of the VSB and organisations
represented in it;
•
accountability and transparency of decision-making;
•
sources and management of funding;
•
administration of training and development programmes.
Effective mechanisms for coordination between the
Veterinary Authority and the VSB should also be established
in compliance with OIE standards
23
Standards on VSB in the Code (2)
 The policy and objectives of VSBs, including their power and
functions, should be defined by law, notably with regard to:
• licensing / registration of veterinarians and veterinary paraprofessionals to perform veterinary activities;
• minimum standards of education (initial and continuing);
• standards of professional conduct and competence;
• procedures for investigating complaints and applying
disciplinary procedures.
 VSBs should be independent of undue political and
commercial interests, and
 Where applicable, regional agreements for the recognition of
veterinary qualifications should be implemented.
VSBs – the state of play
 Many Member countries do not have a VSB that
complies with the standards in the Terrestrial Code,
 A recent OIE review in Africa shows that only 36/ 52
OIE Member countries have a VSB and the VSB
does not, in most cases, comply with the OIE
recommendations.
 A similar situation applies in some other regions,
notably in eastern Europe and parts of Asia and
Latin America.
 There is scope for establishing Twinning agreements
between VSBs – for more information see the OIE
guidelines:
http://www.oie.int/VSB_Twinning_Guide.pdf
25
Expectations for the conference (1)
Since the OIE was established, veterinary
medicine has evolved:

26
Veterinary education and governance must evolve
to satisfy the growing demands of society for
protection against risks related to food safety and
food security, animal diseases and zoonoses,
while respecting reasonable expectations on
animal welfare.
Expectations for the conference (2)
27

The conference should provide recommendations on
the continuing management of this evolution, to help
ensure the high quality competence and ethical
behaviour of all veterinarians licensed to practice
veterinary medicine worldwide.

Member countries should make a strong
committment to support the OIE in the development
of standards, and to implement the adopted
standards, including through harmonisation of
objectives of national veterinary legislation and
veterinary curriculum with respect to the standards.
Expectations for the conference (3)
The Conference will provide:
28

An analysis of Day 1 veterinary competencies and the basic core
curriculum promoted by the OIE and how influence policy makers to
consider them;

An analysis of the current situation with veterinary education and the
performance of VSBs globally, including relevant issues pertaining to
the national veterinary legislation;

Information on general principles and best practices on establishing a
VSB;

Better
international
awareness
of
OIE
standards
and
recommendations relevant to the quality and performance of public
and private components of VS (including the legislative basis and
organisational structure), veterinary education and VSB performance;

Greater awareness of veterinarians in the public and the private
sector on their role and responsibilities under the legal framework of
responsibilities given to the VSB;
Expectations for the conference (4)
29

Information on the experiences of OIE Members in the domain
of veterinary education and VSB quality, including the
challenges and priorities of developing countries;

A discussion amongst OIE Members on ways and means to
improve governance using the OIE Twinning procedures for
VEEs and VSBs and other elements of the OIE PVS
framework (initial PVS evaluation, PVS gap analysis, PVS
follow-up and veterinary legislation missions);

Identification of other tools and support that can be provided to
national VS in developing countries, as appropriate to their
needs;

An active discussion on future needs and priorities to
strengthen veterinary education and VSB performances,
within the framework of the PVS Pathway, including
recommendations to the OIE on future activities and initiatives.
Conclusions (1)
30

The quality of initial and continuing veterinary
education and effective regulation by VSBs, are
pillars of good governance for the national
Veterinary Services.

The OIE has the global mandate to support the
improvement of veterinary education to guarantee
effective public and private sector components of
national Veterinary Services.

The OIE objective, in this context, is to help ensure
that veterinarians (both public and private sector)
have the competence to apply the OIE standards
for animal health and welfare.
Conclusions (2)
31

The OIE objective is also to help guarantee the
excellence of the veterinary profession globally, so
that societal expectations are fulfilled and the
profession enjoys high standing and respect from
the public and from governments.

In light of the ´Global Good´ nature of Veterinary
Services and national animal health programmes,
governments and donors should prioritise needed
investments in laws, infrastructure and education to
achieve a sustainable strengthening of the public
and private sector components of national
Veterinary Services.

The OIE advocates these actions on behalf of VS.
Conclusions (3)
32

The
quality
of
Veterinary
Education
Establishments (VEE) needs to be improved
throughout the world.

A global federation of existing regional
associations of VEE and accrediting bodies
could help to facilitate the application of the OIE
guidelines on veterinary education.
Conclusions (4)
33

This event is historical and for that we commend
our collegues from Brazil. I encourage you all to
participate actively and contribute your views during
the next two and a half days here in Foz do Iguazu.

The recommendations of the Conference will guide
the OIE as it develops new initiatives and
programmes to support countries wishing to
strengthen their compliance with the OIE standards
and wishing a more efficient and respected
veterinary profession.

Your ongoing support for the OIE and active
involvement with our activities are vital to achieve
these important goals.
Thank you for your attention
Organisation mondiale
de la santé animale
World Organisation
for Animal Health
Organización Mundial
de Sanidad Animal
34
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