BRUCELLOSIS IN UGANDA: EXPERIENCES WITH THE DISEASE Wyoming Brucellosis Control Meeting -Lander. 4-4-2013 JOHN BOSCO KALULE College of Veterinary Medicine , Makerere University BOMA PAUL National Agricultural Research Institute •Republic of Uganda •Population 33 million •Capital City : Kampala •Currency : Uganda Shilling •Languages: English (official), local dialects •National Day 9 October, Independence Day •Religions: Catholic, Protestant, traditional beliefs •Agricultural based economy •More than 80% depends on agriculture •GDP 22% Uganda occupies an area of about 241,500.km² 15.3% is open water, •3% permanent wetlands, • 9.4% seasonal wetlands, • 43 % rangelands (an estimated area of 84,000 sq.km). •Rangelands support about 90% of the national cattle population, mainly kept by pastoral and agro-pastoralist communities. •About 85% of the total marketed milk and beef in the country is produced from indigenous cattle, which thrive on natural rangeland pasture •. The climate of Uganda is influenced by the interTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) . Uganda has five climatic zones based on rainfall received namely, 1.Zone I (the Lake Victoria zone) 2.Zone II (the Karamoja region) 3.Zone III (Western Uganda) 4.Zone IV (the Acholi- Kyoga region) 5.Zone V (Ankole- Southern zone) Animal population(thousand animals.2008,2010) Species 2008 2010 Cattle 11,409 12,104 Sheep pi 3410 3,621 Goats 12,450 13,208 Studies have been conducted in selected areas of the country In Livestock -In cattle has been reported to be 15.8% in Mbarara (Western) in 2005, 34% in the pastoral dairy system of Nakasongola (Central), 3.3% in the zero-grazing system of South Eastern districts in 2009, and 13.6% in central and southern parts in 1994 (Makita et al, 2011). Brucellosis seroprevalence had a bimodal monthly pattern corresponding with rainfall. Abstract extract (Magona,2005) “The animal-level seroprevalence and within-herd range of brucellosis in cattle in the pastoral system were 34.0% (95% CI: 29.9, 38.1) and 8.1-75.9%, while for those in the zerograzing system were 3.3% (95% CI: 0.9, 5.7) and 0-9.0%. Abortion rates of 23% and 0% among seropositive cows vis-à-vis 5.4% and 1.9% among seronegative cows were recorded in the pastoral and zerograzing systems, respectively.”(Magona, 2005). EXTENT CONT’D -In Uganda, B. abortus, which causes brucellosis in cattle has been regarded as the most important agent for bovine brucellosis. -However, B. melitensis is also known to be prevalent. A serological survey in Eastern and Western Uganda showed a prevalence of B. melitensis in goats of 10% (141/1446) at individual animal level and 43% (63/145) at the herd level; the risks to humans may not be negligible (Makita et al,2011). Cont’d Brucella suis, Brucella ovis and Brucella canis yet to be screened for. In humans -The high plateau lands of western and eastern Uganda are regarded as zones of hyper-endemicity -The central and southern parts of the country along Lake Victoria are considered zones of moderate endemicity. - Previously reported data obtained using B. abortus agglutination tests were 18% in Kabale (South Western) in 1976 and 24.4% in Karamoja (North Eastern) in 1966 (Makita et al, 2011). -There is no available data from other regions of Uganda Main disease concerns Production losses???? Human disease.(source tracing, isolation from man???) Export restrictions Brucellosis cases in 12 health centres in Uganda. 2010 Brucellosis in Kap. and Kween Test Kapchorwa Kween Total Human(n=) Animals(n=) Human(n=) BAT + 2 1 BAT - 52 76 Theileria+ - 31 Theileria- - 126 Babesia + - 2 Babesia - - 155 Anap.+ - 1 Anap. - - 156 1 55 Animals(n=) 6 (2 pigs, 4 cows) 10 74 264 In Livestock Once test is Positive, farmer is advised to cull In Humans The conventional therapy for brucellosis in Uganda is oral administration of doxycycline for six weeks or intra muscular administration of streptomycin (Makita et al, 2011). Doxycycline+Rifampicin/Gentamycin/Ciprofloxacin Livestock -Vaccination using Brucella S19 vaccine with emphasis on cattle as a response to a reported outbreak.(calfhood heifer vaccination). -Focus is mainly on B. abortus -Voluntary exercise, Vaccine provided by Government through MAAIF -Vaccination done by District Local Gov’t headed by DVO -Surveillance strategy(coordinated human-animal surveilence) Is there need to look at other Brucella spieces except B. abortus? -Should the target for control be extended to other livestock spieces except cattle? -Have we exhausted all the risk factors associated with Brucellosis prevalence in both humans and livestock? -Is there a more effective vaccine that can be employed other than Brucella S19? -What is the net benefit of suggested interventions?