Brucellosis in Uganda: Experiences with the Disease

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BRUCELLOSIS IN UGANDA:
EXPERIENCES WITH THE DISEASE
Wyoming Brucellosis Control Meeting -Lander. 4-4-2013
JOHN BOSCO KALULE
College of Veterinary Medicine , Makerere University
BOMA PAUL
National Agricultural Research Institute
•Republic of Uganda
•Population 33 million
•Capital City : Kampala
•Currency : Uganda Shilling
•Languages: English (official), local dialects
•National Day 9 October, Independence Day
•Religions: Catholic, Protestant, traditional beliefs
•Agricultural based economy
•More than 80% depends on agriculture
•GDP 22%
Uganda occupies an area of about 241,500.km²
15.3% is open water,
•3% permanent wetlands,
• 9.4% seasonal wetlands,
• 43 % rangelands (an estimated area of 84,000 sq.km).
•Rangelands support about 90% of the national cattle
population, mainly kept by pastoral and agro-pastoralist
communities.
•About 85% of the total marketed milk and beef in the
country is produced from indigenous cattle, which
thrive on natural rangeland pasture
•.
The climate of Uganda is influenced by the interTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) .
Uganda has five climatic zones based on rainfall
received namely,
1.Zone I (the Lake Victoria zone)
2.Zone II (the Karamoja region)
3.Zone III (Western Uganda)
4.Zone IV (the Acholi- Kyoga region)
5.Zone V (Ankole- Southern zone)
Animal population(thousand animals.2008,2010)
Species
2008
2010
Cattle
11,409
12,104
Sheep
pi
3410
3,621
Goats
12,450
13,208
Studies have been conducted in selected areas of the country
In Livestock
-In cattle has been reported to be 15.8% in Mbarara (Western) in
2005, 34% in the pastoral dairy system of Nakasongola
(Central),
3.3% in the zero-grazing system of South Eastern districts in
2009, and 13.6% in central and southern parts in 1994 (Makita et
al, 2011).
Brucellosis seroprevalence had a bimodal monthly pattern
corresponding with rainfall.
Abstract extract (Magona,2005)
 “The animal-level seroprevalence and within-herd
range of brucellosis in cattle in the pastoral system
were 34.0% (95% CI: 29.9, 38.1) and 8.1-75.9%, while
for those in the zerograzing system were 3.3% (95% CI:
0.9, 5.7) and 0-9.0%. Abortion rates of 23% and 0%
among seropositive cows vis-à-vis 5.4% and 1.9%
among seronegative cows were recorded in the
pastoral and zerograzing systems,
respectively.”(Magona, 2005).
EXTENT CONT’D
-In Uganda, B. abortus, which causes brucellosis in cattle
has been regarded as the most important agent for bovine
brucellosis.
-However, B. melitensis is also known to be prevalent. A
serological survey in Eastern and Western Uganda showed
a prevalence of B. melitensis in goats of 10% (141/1446)
at individual animal level and 43% (63/145) at the herd
level; the risks to humans may not be negligible (Makita
et al,2011).
Cont’d
 Brucella suis, Brucella ovis and Brucella canis yet to be
screened for.
In humans
-The high plateau lands of western and eastern Uganda are
regarded as zones of hyper-endemicity
-The central and southern parts of the country along Lake
Victoria are considered zones of moderate endemicity.
- Previously reported data obtained using B. abortus
agglutination tests were 18% in Kabale (South Western) in 1976
and 24.4% in Karamoja (North Eastern) in 1966 (Makita et al,
2011).
-There is no available data from other regions of Uganda
Main disease concerns
 Production losses????
 Human disease.(source tracing, isolation from
man???)
 Export restrictions
Brucellosis cases in 12 health centres in Uganda. 2010
Brucellosis in Kap. and Kween
Test
Kapchorwa
Kween
Total
Human(n=)
Animals(n=)
Human(n=)
BAT +
2
1
BAT -
52
76
Theileria+
-
31
Theileria-
-
126
Babesia +
-
2
Babesia -
-
155
Anap.+
-
1
Anap. -
-
156
1
55
Animals(n=)
6 (2 pigs, 4 cows)
10
74
264
In Livestock
Once test is Positive, farmer is advised to cull
In Humans
The conventional therapy for brucellosis in Uganda is oral
administration of doxycycline for six weeks or intra muscular
administration of streptomycin (Makita et al, 2011).
Doxycycline+Rifampicin/Gentamycin/Ciprofloxacin
Livestock
-Vaccination using Brucella S19 vaccine with emphasis on
cattle as a response to a reported outbreak.(calfhood heifer
vaccination).
-Focus is mainly on B. abortus
-Voluntary exercise, Vaccine provided by Government
through MAAIF
-Vaccination done by District Local Gov’t headed by DVO
-Surveillance strategy(coordinated human-animal
surveilence)
Is there need to look at other Brucella spieces except
B. abortus?
-Should the target for control be extended to other
livestock spieces except cattle?
-Have we exhausted all the risk factors associated with
Brucellosis prevalence in both humans and livestock?
-Is there a more effective vaccine that can be employed
other than Brucella S19?
-What is the net benefit of suggested interventions?
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