Diseases of the Urinary System

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Diseases of the
Urinary System
Dee Dee Schumacher
C.V.T.,V.T.S.(ECC), M.Ed.
Casey Conway
Jeannie Stall R.V.T.
Google Images/ClipArt
Alleice Summers
Feline Lower Urinary
Tract Disease (FLUTD)
• AKA feline cystitis, FUS
• Cause : Unknown
• Appears to be self-limiting in most cats (according to
book)
• Symptoms: Hematuria, > frequent urinations
Dysuria (painful urination),Inappropriate urination
• Dx: U/A, urine culture, x-rays
• Tx: Only use abx if necessary, change diet, use antiinflammatory meds w/ caution
• May be recurring problem, there is no definitive cure
Canine Cystitis
• Bacterial urinary tract infection is the most common
cause
• Symptoms: Increased frequency of urination, Hematuria, Dysuria,
Frequent licking of the urethral area
• Dx: U/A , urine culture
• Tx: abx based on culture & sensitivity,
Acute – tx for 10-14 days Chronic- tx for 4-6 weeks
• Relapses are common due to inadequate treatment
Feline Uroliths
Multi-crystalline concretions composed of minerals w/ a sm. amt. of
matrix ( mucoprotein )
AKA “bladder stones” (may be located anywhere in the urinary tract)
• Radiopaque or radiolucent
• Obese, older cats appear to be predisposed
• Small uroliths can become lodged in the urethra (obstruction)
Symptoms depend on degree of trauma, obstruction
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Hematuria
Dysuria
Inappropriate urination
Straining to pass urine
Vomiting
Collapse
Death
• May be asymptomatic
Feline Uroliths
• Dx: x-rays, ultrasound, PE
• Tx: diet that alters urine pH and dissolves
uroliths for 4-8 weeks, abx
• Surgical treatment – cystotomy, uroliths
Obstruction – must unblock urethra asap,
supportive therapy
PU (perineal urethrostomy):
If uroliths can’t be removed from urethra
Feline Urethral Plugs
• Consist of small, varying amts. of minerals w/ large amt.
of matrix( mucoproteins)
Same factors associated w/ formation of uroliths
• Symptoms:
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Straining to urinate
Vomiting
Dehydration
Collapse
• Dx: bladder is enlarged & firm on
palpation, hx, x-rays, bloodworkincreased BUN, CREA, Phos. levels
Feline Urethral Plugs
• Must reestablish urethral patency asap!
• In azotemic cats, less anesthesia is
necessary
• Do not perform cystocentesis until
unblocked!
Urolithiasis - Canine
• Studies indicate prevalence < 1% in dogs
• Uroliths form in urine supersaturated with
specific substances – minerals
• After formation – may pass out urinary
tract, continue to grow in the tract,
dissolve, or become inactive
• Clin.signs: Dysuria, hematuria
Urolithiasis - Canine
• Dx: u/a, x-rays, labwork, stone analysis
• Tx: change diet, abx, surgical removal,
urohydropropulsion
Urolithiasis - Canine
Renal Failure
• Filtration & waste management of the body
• Reduction in blood flow or damage to the nephron
results in renal failure – acute or chronic
Nephron unit is damaged & glomerular filtration declines,
resulting in azotemia (build-up of toxins in body)
• Clin. Signs: Acute – oliguria, polyuria, fever, kidneys
painful on palpation, v/d, anorexia, dehydration
• Dx: Phys. exam, Hx, U/A, blood work
• Tx: IV fluids, discontinue nephrotoxic drugs, intestinal
protectants, diuretics
• May improve renal function, it may never return to
completely normal levels, prognosis can be guarded
Chronic Renal Failure
Common in older pets, irreversible &
progressive decline in renal function,
months to years
• Cats more affected than dogs
• Clin.signs: Dullness, lethargy, weakness,
wt. loss, anorexia, v/d, polyuria, polydipsia,
gait disturbances in cats, sudden
blindness
Chronic Renal Failure
• Dx: labwork
• Tx: Supportive care & correction of
imbalances-dehydration, electrolytes, GI
symptoms
• IV or SQ fluids,
diuretics, consider
euthanasia ???
Urinary Incontinence
• Frequent in older pets
• Loss of voluntary control of urination
• Multiple causes: Neurologic, obstruction, bladder
disease, hormone levels
• Clin. Signs: Owner reports pet “leaks” when asleep or
exercising, perianal area is always wet
• Signs of concurrent UTI are present
• Older ,SF, intact males predisposed
• Dx: u/a, x-rays, bloodwork
• Tx: based on determination of specific cause
• Phenypropanolamine (PPA)
Equine
• Cystitis – inflammation of the bladder,
rare, dx same, tx same
• Urinary bladder prolapse – postpartum
mares, replace bladder, avoid rupture, abx
• Incontinence – diff to treat, tx is usually
symptomatic, urine scald
• Urolithiasis – rarely cause obstruction, if
do- male horse, removal
Urolithiasis – Sheep & Goats
• Most commonly seen in wethers, rams,
bucks that are on high-concentrate diets
• Common in feedlot & pet animals
• Similar clin. signs
• Dx: clin. signs, u/a, x-rays
• Tx: Amputate urethral process,
cystotomy, urinary acidifiers
CALCIUM OXYLATE CRYSTALS
STRUVITE (TRIPLE PHOS.) CRYSTALS
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