South-East European Research Institute on Geo Sciences

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South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Subija IZEIROSKI
Bashkim IDRIZI
Sotir PANOVSKI
Igor NEDELKOVSKI
Application of SDI in hydrology for assessment
of hydropower potential of small streams
1
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
OUTLINES







Introduction
Input SDI
Methodology
Generating DEM model
Main Hydrological parameters in GIS
Engineering criteria for evaluation of hydropower
potential
Results & discusions
Conclusion
2
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Introduction
Overall aims :

Developing DEM & 3-D visualisation of the surface

using input SDI

Application of SDI in watershed analysis using GIS tools

Determination of main topographic & hydrological

parameters for SHP project development

Assessment of SHP potential using geospatial analysis
3
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Input SDI
New topographic maps (Macedonian 25000 SDI)
4
Example of a topographic map in scale 1:25000
Each map covers an area of cca 140 km2
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Methodology
Contour map
DEM
Rainfall grid
(vector)
Flow direction map
Rainfall grid
(raster)
Flow accumulation map
Rainfall accumulation
(raster)
Stream network
Grid and contour data in vector
format (shp) as a content of each
digital map in scale 1:25000 which
covers an area of 10x14 km.
Grid point map
Stream slope
(elevation drop)
Stream flow calculation
POWER & ENERGY
ASSESSMENT
5
Flowchart diagram for assessment of SHP potentials
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Generating DEM
Digital elevation model
DEM of the map
Ljubojno (831-1-2)
Slope raster map in
% of the map
Ljubojno (831-1-2)
Hilshade map
overlayed with
stream network
6
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Main hydrological parameters in GIS
Flow direcction map obtained
from the input DEM
Flow accumulation map
with delineated stream
network
Delineated
subwatersheds with
their pour points in
shape format
7
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Main hydrological parameters in GIS
Watershed area of the Brajchninska
river with the pour point (outlet)
A = 161.351*20*20 = 64.540.400 m2
= 64,54 km2.
8
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Engineering criteria for evaluation of
Hydropower potential
1. Determination of elevation drop
2. Streamflow calculation
First approach:
Elevation drop
determining at pixel level
Product of two raster maps
using raster calculator:
[stream_raster] * [dem_fill]
Watershed area with
slope(elevation drop)
values at pixel level
along Brajchinska river
and its tributaries
9
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Engineering criteria for evaluation of
Hydropower potential
1. Determination of elevation drop
2. Streamflow calculation
Second approach:
Elevation drop
determining at segment level
The quotient between the starting and
ending point elevations of each stream
segment divided with the length
gives slope(elavation drop) of
the segment
H (
h1  h2
1100 1065
) *100%  (
) *100  5,8%
L
597,4
10
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Engineering criteria for evaluation of
Hydropower potential
1. Determination of elevation drop
2. Streamflow calculation
Scanned part of the
isohyetal map covering
the
study area
Determination of raster map with
rainfall values using method for
interpolation of isohyetal map:
Rainfall raster map obtained with
interpolation of scanned isohyetal
map
11
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Engineering criteria for evaluation of
Hydropower potential
1. Determination of elevation drop
2. Streamflow calculation
Determination of raster map with
rainfall values in aeach cell
using quadratic equation:
R  166,93  100,42H  2,80H 2
12
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Engineering criteria for
evaluation of
6.000
5.000
4.000
PROTOK
Hydropower potential
LINIJA NA TRAENJE
3.000
Series1
2.000
1.000
1. Determination of elevation drop
97.505
93.763
90.021
86.279
82.536
78.794
75.052
71.102
67.568
63.825
60.083
56.341
52.599
48.857
45.114
41.372
37.630
33.888
30.146
26.403
22.661
18.919
15.177
7.692
P
Flow duration curve for mean monthly flows at the
gauging station Brajcino-285
Annual_FDC
2.000
1.800
1.600
1.400
Flow
Determination of flow duation
curves at the gauging
station.
They give information about
fluctuation, oscilation of
water flows during the year
11.435
2. Streamflow calculation
3.950
0.208
0.000
1.200
1.000
Series1
0.800
0.600
0.400
0.200
2.
43
9
7.
31
12 7
.1
9
17 5
.0
7
21 3
.9
5
26 1
.8
2
31 9
.7
0
36 7
.5
8
41 5
.4
6
46 3
.3
4
51 1
.2
2
56 0
.0
9
60 8
.9
7
65 6
.8
5
70 4
.7
3
75 2
.6
1
80 0
.4
8
85 8
.3
6
90 6
.2
4
95 4
.1
22
0.000
X = 513480 m ; Y = 4528740 m ; Z = 975,29 m.
Coordinates of the gauging station Brajcino-285
Percentage
13
Flow duration curve for mean annual flows at the
gauging station Brajcino-285
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Engineering criteria for evaluation
of Hydropower potential
1. Determination of elevation drop
2. Streamflow calculation
Determination of runoff raster
map using rational method
and raster calculator tool in
Spatial analyst
Calculation procedure
Qan  Can  I an  A
Qan 
Can
 I an  A
1000 * 365 * 24 * 60 * 60
Qan 
0.808
 I an  A
1000 * 365 * 24 * 60 * 60
011
Qan  2.562*10
 I an  A
14
Runoff raster map at pixel level calculated using
the rational method
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Engineering criteria for evaluation
of Hydropower potential
1. Determination of elevation drop
2. Streamflow calculation
Determination of runoff raster
map using area-proportion
method and raster calculator
tool in Spatial analyst
Calculation procedure

Qx  Ax 


Qo  Ao
a=0.75
A 
Qx  Qo *  x 
 A0 
Qo
0.927(m 3 / s)

 1,7 *108
2
Ao 54516800(m )
8
Qx  1,7 *10 * Ax
15
Runoff raster map at pixel level calculated using
the area-proportion method
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Chart Title
Engineering criteria for evaluation
1
0.8
Runoff
of Hydropower potential
1.2
y = -0.0062x + 6.4721
R2 = 0.8492
0.6
Q-R relationship
Linear (Q-R relationship)
0.4
1. Determination of elevation drop
0.2
0
860
880
900
920
940
960
980
1000
1020
Rainfall
2. Streamflow calculation
Chart Title
1.2
1
y = -7E-06x 2 + 0.0065x + 0.4569
R2 = 0.8507
0.6
Q-R relationship
Poly. (Q-R relationship)
0.4
0.2
0
860
880
900
920
940
960
980
1000
1020
Rainfall
Chart Title
1.2
1
0.8
Runoff
Determination of regression
dependences between the
runoff and rainfall /runoff and
watershed areas
Runoff
0.8
y = -5.8894Ln(x) + 40.941
R2 = 0.8473
0.6
Q-R relationship
Log. (Q-R relationship)
0.4
0.2
0
860
880
900
920
940
960
980
1000
1020
Rainfall
16
Linear, polinomial and logaritmic regression
correlation between runoff and rainfall
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Engineering criteria for evaluation
of Hydropower potential
1. Determination of elevation drop
2. Streamflow calculation
Main criteria for site selection
of SHP
1. Topographic factor –
hidraulic head of stream
2. Hydrologic factor: Runoff
Assessment of flow rates
ТАБЕЛА СО ИЗБРАНИ ТОЧКИ
Ред.бр.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
Опис
Брајчинска_192
Кривакобила_319
Брајчинска_330
Брајчинска_45
Брајчинска_340
Ржанска_337
МХЕЦ_375
Брајчинска_343
Станишар_341
Станишар_Инт
Калмур_336долу
Калмур_336горе
Темнидол_348
МХЕЦ_376
Цефка_старт376
Станица_P
Станица_Q
X-коорд
519012
518697
518551
517929
517790
517189
516900
516792
515937
515780
515347
514901
514980
514950
514780
513760
513480
Y_коорд
4530775
4531558
4530841
4530719
4530609
4529865
4530550
4530532
4531118
4530660
4530627
4530840
4529488
4529750
4530000
4528620
4528740
Z_горен зафат
1350
1350
1302
1255
1248
1268
1180
1187
1226
1176
1227
1349
1100
1054
1165
1020
975
Должина на
сегмент
502.23
563.3
636.25
163.98
1085.29
748.81
1206.9
1132.71
567.3
1285.64
1285.64
1258.74
Graphic layout of some important point
17
locations in the Catchment area above
the measuring station Brajcino-285
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Results & discussions
7
8
1
Formula for calculation of
the effective power output)
Pi  g i H n Qi (kW )
3
2
9,10
4
5
6
18
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Results & discussions
No
Location
Intake
Elevation(m)
SHP
Elevation(m)
Watershed
Area(km2)
Qav(m3/s)
Elevation
Drop(m)
Qin(m3/s)
P (kW
1
K_kob_319
1321
1202
8.969
119
0.239
0.3585
341.3
2
Brac_192
1317
1224
6.953
93
0.178
0.267
198.65
3
Brajc_330
1302
1225
16.278
77
0.375
0.5625
346.5
4
Brajc_340
1248
1133
18.112
115
0.406
0.609
560.3
5
Rzans_337
1268
1103
9.664
165
0.253
0.3795
500.95
6
Brajc_343
1187
1071
29.384
116
0.583
0.8745
811.53
7
Stanis_341r
1226
1146
9.737
80
0.255
0.3825
244.8
8
Stanis_341l
1226
1082
9.737
144
0.255
0.3825
440.65
9
Stanis_int
1176
1062
10,102
114
0.262
0.393
358.42
10
Brajc_343+
Stanis_int
1178
1062
39,486
114
0.845
1.2675
1155.96
11
Brajc_340+
Rzans_337
1248
1133
27,776
115
0.659
0.9885
1004.77
The combination of two intakes of stream flow (No.
10 & 11 of the table above) provides significantly
more power output.
Table with data of the suitable
locations for SHP development
19
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
Results & discussions
The research is performed using digital
maps of the existing Macedonian
25000SDI
The establishing of NSDI in Macedonia is
still ongoing process.
NSDI should be made according
to the INSPIRE directive of the EU.
Concerning this the contemporary up to
date spatial data of NSDI should be
harmonized, interoperable and applicable
to all stakeholders
A step forward is also the creation of a
web geoportal for dissemination of
geospatial information online available for
all interested subjects
Example of a single dataset of the Macedinia 25000SDI in
ArcInfo coverage structure
20
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
CONCLUSIONS

Methodology of using GIS tools for effective visualization of the
land surface and stream network was presented.

Proposed GIS approach is useful tool for a preliminary
identification of potential hydropower potentials, and can be
applied in all area that contain the following data: DEM, annual
rainfall & discharge data.

Further analysis could be made with more accurate DEMs obtained
from LIDAR or professional satellite images with finer resolution

Further research studies should also consider for SHP
construction:
distances to main roads
proximity to power lines
distances to natural protected area
21
South-East European Research
Institute on Geo Sciences
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
ATTENTION !!!
Dr. Subija IZEIROSKI,
Geo-SEE Institute -Skopje
[email protected],
[email protected]
www.geo-see.org
Assoc.Prof.Dr. Bashkim IDRIZI
State University of Tetova.
[email protected],
[email protected]
www.unite.edu.mk
Prof.Dr. Sotir PANOVSKI
University St.Kliment
Ohridski-Bitola
[email protected]
www.tfb.edu.mk
Prof.Dr. Igor NEDELKOVSKI
University St.Kliment
Ohridski-Bitola
22
[email protected]
www.tfb.edu.mk
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