Social Culture and Change

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Social Culture & Change
Unit 9
Sources of Social Change

Environment
◦ Natural Disasters

Population
◦ Birth rates
◦ Death rates
◦ Subcultures
Sources of Social Change

Technology
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◦
◦
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Technological Determinism
Automation
Cultural lag
Cultural Innovation
 Discovery
 Invention
 Diffusion
Sources of Social Change

Modernization
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Industrialization
Urbanization
Bureaucratization
Convergence Theory
Sources of Social Change

Human Interactions
◦ Human action
◦ Collective behavior
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Environmental Factors
Lack of Norms
Relative Deprivation
Breakdown of Social Control
◦ Social movement
Sources of Social Change

Global Development
◦ Developed countries = rich
◦ Undeveloped countries = poor
Theories of Social Change

Sociocultural Evolution Theory
◦ Mutilinear
◦ Simple to Complex

Cyclical Theory
◦ Spengler: Society as an organism
◦ Toynbee: Society as a response to a challenge
◦ Sorokin: Sensate (gratification) and Ideational
(faith) societies
Theories of Social Change

Functionalist
◦ Emile Durkheim
◦ Talcott Parsons
 Equilibrium Theory

Conflict
◦ Karl Marx

Interactionist
◦ Erving Goffman
 Dramaturgical
World System Model
World System
 Colonial System
 Imperialism
 Neocolonialism
 Multinational Corporations

Social Change
Revolution
 Collective Behavior

◦ Neil Smelser’s 6 Conditions Triggering
Collective Behavior
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Structural Conductiveness
Structural Strain
Generalized Belief
Precipitating Factors
Mobilization of Participants toward Action
Social Control
Group Behavior

Crowds
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◦
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Casual Crowd
Conventional Crowd
Expressive Crowd
Solidaristic Crowd
Active Crowd
 Mob
 Riot
Group Behavior

Gustave le Bon
◦ Contagion Theory
 Invincibility
 Suggestibility

Lewis Killian
◦ Emergent-Norm Theory
Mass Behavior
Diffuse Crowds
 Mass Behavior
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Panic
Mass Hysteria
Disaster Behavior
Fashion
Fads
Crazes
Collective Communication
Mass Media
 Technological Development

◦ Cell phone
◦ Email
◦ Txtng ur bff

Negative Communication
◦ Rumor
◦ Gossip
Collective Communication

Neutral Communication
◦
◦
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Public Communication
Opinion Leaders
Propaganda
Urban Legends
Social Movements

4 Primary Social Movements
◦
◦
◦
◦
Reform Movements
Revolutionary Movements
Resistance (Regressive) Movements
Expressive (Utopian) Movements
Social Movements

The 4 Stage Life Course
◦ Preliminary Stage
◦ Popular Stage (Legitimization)
◦ Formal Organizational Stage
(Bureaucratization)
◦ Institutional Stage
Terrorism

Terrorism
◦ State Terrorism
◦ Revolutionary Terrorism
Theories of Social Movement

Psychological Theories
◦ Social movements as deviance

Strain Theories
◦ Deprivation

Resource Mobilization Theories
◦ John McCarthy & Mayer Zald
Population Counts
Population
 Census
 Vital Statistics

◦ Population Projections
◦ Population Forecasts

Population Composition
◦
◦
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Gender Ratio
Racial Ratio
Educational Ratio
SES Ratio
Population Growth

3 Factors to Population Growth
◦ Fertility (birth) Rates
◦ Mortality (death) Rates
 Age-specific death rates
 Neonatal & infant mortality rates
◦ Migration (attrition) Rates




International
Internal
Immigration
Emmigration
Population Growth
Life Span
 Life Expectancy
 Population Growth
 Demographic Transition Theory

◦ High Birth/High Death
◦ High Birth/Low Death
◦ Low Birth/Low Death

Zero Population Growth
Population Control
Family Planning
 Antinatalism
 Economic Incentives
 Economic Improvements

Urbanization
Urbanization
 Metropolis

◦ City
◦ Suburb
◦ Rural
Megalopolis
 Edge Cities
 Gentrification into low SES areas

Urbanization

Herbert Gains: 5 Major Groups in Cities
◦
◦
◦
◦
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Cosmopolites
Unmarried & Childless
Ethnic Villagers
The Deprived
The Trapped
Urban Ecology

Urban Ecology
◦ Ecological Segregation
◦ Invasion & Succession

Ernest Burgess
◦ Concentric Zone Model

Social Area Analysis
Urban Theory

Ferdinand Tonnies
◦ Gemeinschaft
◦ Gesellischaft

Louis Wirth
◦ 3 Characteristics of Cities: Size, Population
Density, and Social Diversity’

Herbert Gans
◦ Suburban culture a product of status & class
Social Conflict
War vs Peace
 Arms Race
 Nuclear War
 War on Terror

Social Conflict

Nuclear War
◦ 4 Principle (Immediate) Effects




Electromagnetic Pulse
Explosive Blast (pressure jump)
Excessive Heat
Direct Radiation
◦ Long-Term Effects
 Fallout
 Early Fallout
 Delayed Fallout
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