The History of Ceramic Pottery Ceramic Timeline • 35,000-7,000 B.C. Paleolithic Age 9500 B.C. Japan, Fired Vessels 6000 B.C. Middle East 4500 B.C. Mesopotamia 4000 B.C. Middle East, The First Cities 3000 B.C. The First Pottery Made in South America 2700 B.C. The First Glaze, Egypt 2655 B.C. Banshan Culture, China 2500-1500 B.C. Jomon Period, Japan 2500 B.C. Wheel Throwing in China 2500--1100 B.C. Minoan Culture, Crete 2000 B.C. First Pottery Made in Middle America 2000 B.C. Glassmaking, Middle East 1600-1100 B.C. Shang Dynasty, China 1500 B.C.-A.D. 300 Formative Period, Middle America 1200-500 B.C. Olmec Culture, Middle America 1100-400 B.C. Chavin Culture, South America 900-500 B.C. Earliest Lead Glazing, Middle East 1000-300 B.C. Classic Shapes, Greek Pottery 700 B.C. Black Figure Technique, Greece 600 B.C. Red Figure Technique, Greece 700-400 B.C. Life-sized Terra Cotta Sculpture, Italy 600 B.C. Tin-Lead Glazes, Middle East 300 B.C.-A.D. 1400 Life-sized Terra Cotta Sculpture, Africa 221-202 B.C. Life-sized Terra Cotta Sculpture, Qin Dynasty, China 206 B.C.-A.D. 221 Han Dynasty, China 57 B.C.-A.D. 935 Silla Period, Korea 100-700 The Mochia Culture, South America 200 Feldspathic Glazes, Yueh Wae, China 200 B.C.-A.D.476 The Roman Empire, Europe 200-600 Haniwa Figures, Japan 300-980 Classic Period, Teotihuacan, Mexico 618-906 Tang Dynasty, China 632-1150 Early Islamic Wares, Middle East 800-1400 Southwest Indian, North America • 950-1035 Mayan Post-Classic Period, Middle America 918-1382 The Koryo Dynasty, Korea 1000 Early Stoneware, Germany 960-1279 The Song Dynasty, China 960-1127 North Song, China 1128-1279 Southern Song, China 1150-1350 Medieval Islamic Period, Middle East 1200-1450 Chimu Culture, South America 1200-1521 The Axtecs, Central America 1450-1550 Inca Culture, South America 1200- Hispano-Moresque Wares, Spain 1556 First Books on Pottery Written, Italy 1230-1600 Tin-glazed Earthenware, Italy 1350-1900 Late Islamic Period, Middle East 1368-1644 The Ming Dynasty, China 1392-1910 Choson Period, Korea 1400-1900 Tea Ceramics, Raku Ware, Japan 1400 Salt-glazed Stoneware, Germany 1500 Tin-glazed Earthenware, France 1500 First Delftware, Holland 1575-1804 Soft-paste Porcelain, Europe 1600-1750 Staffordshire Slipware, England 1616 Arita Ware, Japan 1708 European Porcelain 1644-1912 Ch'ing Dynasty, China 1700-1850 Industrialization of Potteries, Great Britain 1850-1910 The Arts and Crafts Movement, Great Britain 1800-1920 The Arts and Crafts Movement, United States 1895-1905 Art Nouveau, France 1890-Present Pueblo Pottery Revival, United States 1900-1940 The Modern Movement The Bauhaus School, Germany The Modern Movement, England 1920's The Studio Potter/Folk Pottery Mid 1900's Transition to Clay as Art 1946-1953 Pablo Picasso, France 1954-1964 Abstract Expressionism, Otis Influence, United States Alfred Influence, United States 1960-1970's Funk and Fake Art Late Twentieth Century Contemporary Clay Early Twenty-First Century Current Trends The Basket and the Pot In some ancient communities it is believed that basket making lead to the discovery of clay pottery. Baskets were made of strong plant life for heavy loads. They were lined with animal skins to carry water. The Basket and the Pot At some point, probably before 7000 B.C., someone discovered an easier, less wasteful, way to waterproof a basket by smearing the inside with a layer of stiff mud or clay. A New “Basket” No one really knows when or who first started to use the new technology of ceramics, but most speculate that it was discovered by some prehistoric person; perhaps that person smeared a basket with clay and set it too near a fire. When the basket burned, the clay hardened. Perhaps it happened when a home or village burned. Earliest Pottery The Beginnings of Pottery • Clay animal and fertility figures found at a site in the Czech Republic estimated to be around thirty thousand years old are the earliest discovered pottery. • Clay sculptures of bison discovered in the Tuc d’ Audobert Cave in France are thought to be about fourteen thousand years old. The Venus Made of clay and bone ash, this is the tiny baked clay figurine is known as the "Venus" of Dolni Vestonice. It is thought to be about 29,000 years old and have been fired in a beehive shaped kiln in a Stone Age village. East Asia Pottery • Vast improvements in the process of creating and decorating pottery began in the countries of East Asia, especially China, Japan and Korea. • China lead the way with the development of porcelain and numerous technical and artistic innovations that influenced the world. Japanese Pottery History • Ten Thousand years of Jomon – The porous, coiled earth ware pottery of Japan called Jomon spanned more than ten thousand years, from about 12,000 B.C. to 2000 B.C and is the oldest carbon dated pottery in the world. – The term Jomon means cord mark in Japanese and refers to the distinctive pattern made by pressing cord on the surface of clay as decoration. Jomon Continued • Early Jomon pottery was dominated by deep vessels that are flower pot shape. • Middle Jomon period decorations included serpents and other animal heads wounded around the rims that some became unbalanced. • Late Jomon period was distinguished by deep incising or grooving that were filled with cord marks and with burnished surfaces. Progress in Japanese Pottery • • • • The spread of agriculture, the use of primitive wheel turning in the making of pottery and the start of metal working characterized the Yayoi period in Japan (300 B.C. to A.D. 300) Yayoi potters created new vessels that were smoother, more balanced and less porous. During the Haniwa or tumulus period( A.D. 200 to 600) clay figures were placed around tombs in underground burial chambers. The Japanese also made progress in firing of pottery by adopting anagama kilns from the Koreans and Chinese. Being able to create higher temperatures was important to the development of stronger, higher quality pottery. Buddhism, lead Glaze and Pottery Centers • Once Buddhism was introduced in the sixth century it influenced all aspects of Japanese life. • Chinese lead glaze pottery became popular in the 7th century and 8th century but by 11th centuries the Chinese influence declined and the Japanese pottery became floral quiet designs. • By the 14th Century pottery production centers were established in locations throughout Japan and each developed a specialty. • The raku technique was developed at this time and is still used today to create very shiny pottery. Discovery of Kaolin • The Chinese had been manufacturing porcelain for many years by the time the Japanese discovered deposits of Kaolin clay at Arita on the island of Kyushu in the early 17th century. • The first Japanese porcelain, known as Imari ware and produced mainly for export, was decorated in blue and white. • By the middle of the 19th century most pottery in Japan was produced for export and used simple designs for mass appeal. Chinese Pottery History • Advancements from China in the production and development of pottery cannot be underestimated. • China’s Earliest Pottery was first produced in the yellow river valley in northern china and the pottery were simple coil built earthen ware. Chinese Pottery History • The first feldspathic glaze occurred during the Shang dynasty and it combined feldspar and wood ash. • This produced greenish pottery. • In year 907 during the Tang dynasty there was a popular style called the three Tang color which included more than three colors. Chinese Pottery History • Porcelain reached its highest development during the Sung Dynasty in year 960 to 1280. • Ting ware during this period was very popular: bowls, plates, jars and pots coated in ivory glaze and the rims were branded with copper. Korean Pottery History • A distinctive form of Korean ware from the rest of Asia in an inlay technique known a Mishima. • Here you pierced the clay then glazed black and white under celadon glaze. Overall As pottery making developed in East Asia, it also thrived simultaneously in the Middle East. The Near and Middle East The Near and Middle East • This includes the countries of Mesopotamia now (Iraq), Persia now (Iran), Syria, Anatolia now(Turkey) and Egypt. • All of the earliest forms of pottery from this region are simple, coiled vases. The Near and Middle East Fired clay figurine about 2.5 inches high. Made about 7000 BC. from Tepe Sarab a prehistoric village site in Western Iran. The Near and Middle East This tiny fired clay image of a wild boar c.7000 BC. was also from Tepe Sarab in Iran The Near and Middle East Enthroned goddess in baked clay. c.5500 BC. Possibly giving birth. Two leopard-like heads on either side. - Çatal Hüyük Anatolia Turkey. The Near and Middle East • Clay Vessels from as early as 8000-6000 B.C. WERE DISCOVERED AT Latal Hyuck in Anatolia. • They created deep bowls and hole mouth jars. • They had light colors and burnished surfaces no decoration and were wood fired. The Near and Middle East • Ancient Cultures in Mesopotamia made 2 distinct types of pottery: 1. Bowls and rounded jars with plain engraved line patterns 2. Vessels called Samarra ware with decoration painted on. The Near and Middle East •Samarra ware had painted geometric patterns as well as human/animals in red/black around 5000 B.C. •Halfa type dish found at Arpachiyah North Iraq c.5000 BC.